Sex-related differences in olfactory function and evaluation of possible confounding factors among patients with Parkinson's disease
AbstractThe role of specific sex-related patterns in olfactory dysfunctions of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of specific sex-related patterns in olfactory dysfunctions excluding the possibility of confounding effects in patients with Parkinson’s disease. One hundred and sixty-eight participants (99 PD patients and 69 controls) were enrolled and evaluated using Sniffin’ Sticks Extended test (SSET). There was no significant sex difference in the control group for the SSET parameters. By contrast, in the PD group male patients scored significantly lower on odor discrimination (OD), identification (OI), and Threshold-Discrimination-Identification (TDI) score than females. On multivariable linear regression analysis, the only significant predictors of TDI score were sex and apathy. Among PD patients, men showed a significantly greater impairment compared to women in OI, OD and TDI score, but not in odor threshold (OT). These findings highlighted the possible role of sex differences in the development of associated PD non-motor symptoms.
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