Evaluation of the attractant effect and lipid profile modulation of natural fixed oils on the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)
Primo;Piras A.;Carta G.;Solari P.;Crnjar R.;Masala C.
AbstractThe Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a polyphagous pest in horticulture, mainly targeting Citrus fruits. Natural essential and fixed oils are currently under investigation for their broad-spectrum in pest control. To gain better knowledge about medfly behavior and biochemistry, we examined with behavioral and biochemical assays, the effects on C. capitata from six natural fixed oils obtained from vegetable (five) or animal (one) matrices using the eco-friendly supercritical CO2extraction. Oils were obtained at 250/300 bar and 40°C from the seeds of Laurus nobilis and Citrus paradisi, the fruits of Myristica fragrans and Pistacia terebinthus, wheat germ, and mullet roes (marine oil). Behavioral experiments were performed by means of two-choice tests to analyze the oil attractant effect compared with control (water or standard diet). The fatty acid composition of oils and the total lipid and fatty acid profile of medflies were characterized by chromatographic techniques. Behavioral bioassays showed that fixed oil obtained from M. fragrans (nutmeg butter) was more attractive than other oils. Medflies fed (24 hr) on marine oil showed significant changes in the total lipid and fatty acid profile induced by oil ingestion without toxic effects. However, 56% mortality was observed in insects fed on M. fragrans oil and no biochemical changes ascribable to oil ingestion were detected in the medflies that survived. Our results advance knowledge about the behavioral and biochemical response of medflies to fixed oils and will be potentially useful in developing new pest management strategies.
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