||Iuliu Maniu, Austro - Hungarian former soldier which left the imperial army to fight it, was the leader of National - Peasant Party and Romanian Prime Minister since 1928 to 1930 and from 1932 until 1933. Iuliu Maniu opposed the dictatorship of King Carol II e ncouraged and then fought against the General Antonescu ’ s regime. Ion Mihalache founded the Peasant Party, which joined the National - Peasant Party on 1926. Mihalache became Vice - President of the National - Peasant Party. The National - Peasant Party didn ’ t joi n the Petru Groza ’ s government and it was declared as illegal by new Romanian authorities on 1947. Both Maniu and Mihalache died behind bars. This paper ’ s purpose is to show how the Italian diplomatic mission in Bucharest, then of Legation Level, followed carefully and in a critical manner the developments of the trial to Iuliu Maniu and Ion Mihalach e, constantly reporting to its superiorors . This process played a crucial role in the strengthening of the new communist regime in Romania. Documents get a new light both on the trial as seen from an external perspective and on Italian attitudes and feelings about the Romanian communist regime.