||This thesis analyzes the modern Turkish state and Turkish civil society through a perspective influenced by the approaches of Marx and Gramsci. First of all, the work focuses on Turkish debate around the concept of civil society which has been dominated by liberal views. However, recently, critical investigations following Marx and Gramsci’s outlook, have started challenging the dominant perspective of the debate. Starting from this view, the research analyzes the relations between state and civil society adherents to Kemalist ideology during the 40s through the reading of a Turkish periodical, Kadın Gazetesi. According to the above mentioned approach, Turkey can be studied as a political entity built to create a citizenry able to accept the authority as natural. The alliance between native bourgeoisie and bureaucratic class led the country towards a definition of the Republic. However, during wartime, capital accumulation became an important element in breaking the historical coalition. As bureaucracy was not able to save the old alliance, the bourgeoisie, aware of its increasingly role, no longer wished to compromise.