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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


Aim of the course is to provide the student with the main types of antennas used in modern telecommunications, and the main planning techniques of a telecommunications system, in particular for cellular communication systems in urban areas. The criteria for the design of antenna systems will be provided, based on the specifications required by the application of interest, both for broadcast applications and for cellular applications. The main empirical planning techniques and the physical mechanisms of urban propagation will also be described. The exercises will be carried out using adequate CAD programs.
In the following, the training objectives, developed according to the Dublin Descriptors:
The student will acquire knowledge of the methodological-operational aspects of applied electromagnetism, and will be able to identify, formulate and solve the main engineering problems related to the design of Antennas and mobile cellular systems, using appropriate methods, techniques and tools. At the end of the course he should know and understand: the main types of antennas used in modern communication systems; the essential criteria necessary for the design of any antenna system; the most important urban propagation mechanisms and the problems associated with the high signal attenuation and the interference between radio frequency signals. (Knowledge and understanding)
The student will be able to use techniques and tools for the design of antennas in the telecommunications sector and for the planning of coverage of mobile cellular systems; he should know the contemporary contexts, and will acquire interpersonal and decisional skills (will be able to work in groups). At the end of the course, he must be able to analyze the behavior of any radio frequency antenna system, and must know how to identify the characteristics of a generic radio frequency antenna system, how to define the parameters of an antenna system based on certain specifications, and how to design any radio frequency antenna system. (Ability to apply knowledge and understanding)
The student will be aware of the risks of technology, will have sensitivity towards both environmental, and safety issues. (Behaviors)
At the end of the course, he must be able to discriminate the propagation mechanisms of the electromagnetic field on the basis of the propagation environment, to analyze a connection between two or more antenna systems, and to adequately describe the different modules that make up a radio frequency communication system. Finally, he must know how to select the most suitable antenna and/or antenna system for a given application, based on the required design specifications. (Autonomy of judgment)
At the end of the course, the student must be able to display, with an appropriate technical language, the problems related to the propagation and radiative aspects related to radio-frequency antenna systems, adequately describing the mechanisms that regulate the propagation of the electromagnetic field in the various connection scenarios. (Communication skills)
The student must be able to study independently the topics covered in the course, using appropriate supports, in addition to the supports proposed during the course. The course will provide students with the basics to independently understand the technical documentation related to microwave components, and in particular radio frequency antenna systems. (Learning ability)


Lexicals: understanding and ability to use technical-scientific language, in particular concerning basic physics and mathematics
Informatics: ability to use/learn basic tools and software for scientific calculation
Communications: knowing how to present concepts and information in oral, written and graphic form
Organizational: know how to organize activities during the day and plan a medium-term work / study plan
Knowledge: Maxwell Equations, Transmission Lines, Impedance Matching, Plane Waves, Electromagnetic Field Polarization, Antennas, Fourier Transform, Signal Theory, Probability Theory.
Skills: ability to define the relations between physical phenomena, their properties and their representation both in mathematics and in graphic form.
These knowledge, skills and competences are usually acquired during first level degree programs.
Prerequisites: Electromagnetic Fields, Signal Theory, Applied Mathematics, Geometry.


The course can be divided into two parts, more or less equally divided. The first part describes the main types of antennas used in modern communication systems, and provides the essential criteria necessary for the design of any antenna system. The second part deals mainly with the most important propagation mechanisms and the main attenuation mechanisms in complex environments, such as the urban environment, and more generally in environments affected by multipath and slow fading, and the main design methods and criteria for cope with these problems, related to the high attenuation of the signal and the interference between radio frequency signals.

Teaching Methods

The course includes 40 hours of lectures with the support of graphic presentations, both educational and practical, with numerical examples of application of the relationships described in the theoretical part. Practical activities include 30 hours, including a part mainly based on the use of commercial electromagnetic simulators, in order to analyze and desing appropriate wireless systems that highlight the problems and concepts highlighted during the theoretical lessons; the remaining part will be dedicated to hardware systems, in particular to measurements of microwave components with Network Analyzer, and to measurements of electromagnetic field levels with broadband probes.

Verification of learning

At the end of the course the student will have to choose two projects to be carried out, using the simulation software used during the laboratory exercises. These projects will be evaluated with a score of up to 3/30 each one. The assessment of learning is carried out at the end of the course through an oral exam that will focus on all the topics presented during the course, in order to verify the knowledge, skills and competences that cover the entire program of the course itself. The maximum grade assigned to the oral exam is 24/30. The final grade is obtained as the sum of the scores obtained in each project and the score assigned to the oral exam, and will take into account the knowledge, skills and competences acquired. In particular, a reasonable level of knowledge, combined with even minimal skill, is a necessary condition for passing the exam.


R. E. Collin: Antennas and radiowave propagation, McGraw-Hill (student edition)

H. L. Bertoni: Radio Propagation for modern wireless systems, Prentice Hall
Materiale preparato dal docente.

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