IA/0044 - INDUSTRIAL AND ENERGETIC PROCESSES
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
SIMONETTA PALMAS (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[70/88] CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING||[88/00 - Ord. 2020] PERCORSO COMUNE||12||120|
The general educational objective of the course is to provide a method for the analysis of chemical and electrochemical processes of industrial interest. The course aims primarily to provide the students the ability to use this method through examples of analysis of chemical industry processes and electrochemistry, with special regard to the processes of particular concern in the local industrial area.
The common descriptors of learning outcomes and competencies expected of students upon completing the course may be resumed as:
Knowledge and understanding:
Through attending the course the student will acquire:
- in-depth knowledge on the main production processes of industrial chemistry inorganic and electrochemical engineering
- ability to perform thermodynamic analysis of a chemical process
- ability to identify the working conditions to maximize the thermodynamic yield
- ability to make a critical analysis of technical books and papers on the main topics of the process industry
- ability to solve problems related to chemical equilibrium, mass and energy balances involved in typical industrial processes
Ability to make informed judgments and Communication skills
Through attending the course, the student will:
- be able to express the results of the calculations in the form of technical report
- be able to expose a critical analysis of a technical subject
Learning skills for further study
Through attending the course, the student will acquire methods of critical analysis of the scientific / technical documentation
The student must have mastered a few basic concepts: General Chemistry (particularly, chemical equilibrium concepts, redox reactions, basic of electrochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics) thermodynamics (Joule Thomson effect, non-ideal behavior of gases - calculation of the properties of non-ideal gas), Chemical plants (macroscopic matter and heat balances, Distillation) and Chemical Reactors.
Part1 – Industrial Processes (ore: 42L, 18 lab/E)
Separation and purification methods and their application to the industrial processes (Ore 10L; 4Lab)
Main factors that affect the feasibility of the separation methods - Fields of application and selection criteria.
Examples of purification of gaseous and liquid streams: acid gas treatment unit - physical chemical methods of purification of process streams from CO2, H2S - Claus process
Wastewater treatment processes (20L, 4Lab, 4E)
Main parameters for the wastewater characterization: solids; BOD; COD; TOC; etc. Unit operations for the treatment and sizing of the relevant equipment. Biological treatment processes, aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic and sizing of the related bioreactors.
advanced oxidation processes.
Electrochemical processes (ore 12L; 6E)
Components and operative conditions of electrochemical reactors; kinetics of electrochemical reactions and mass balances, minimum voltage electrolysis; current density and over-voltage relationship ; side reactions and energy efficiency, description and classification of electrochemical reactors.
Example of the electrolytic process in aqueous solution (Chloralkaly process).
Part2 – Energetic Processes (ore: 38L, 22 lab/E)
New H2 economy (ore 6L)
Physico-chemical and energy properties; H2 production from renewable energy resources. Chemical and physical storage. Transport.
Grey and blue Hydrogen: Hydrogen production from fossil fuels (ore 16L; 6E)
Partial oxidation processes, primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons, CO conversion, final purification and CO2 separation and capture.
Uses of hydrogen - Types and energy basics of fuel cells: (ore 12L; 6E/6Lab)
Cells at low temperature: alkaline fuel cells (AFC), polymer electrolyte (PEM) (hydrogen and direct methanol)
Medium-high temperature FC: molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC), phosphoric acid (PAFC), operating principles, efficiencies, conditions and fields of application, limitations and prospects for development.
Overview of application opportunities and objectives for technological development: automotive applications, co-generation plants
Energy storage systems (ore 4L; E4): analysis of charging and discharging of capacitors,
lithium batteries and supercapacitors.
Depending on the evolution of the state of health emergency due to Covid-19, the course will be taught through lectures and classroom exercises, and completed by on-line strategies of teaching. During the lessons, the level of learning will be assessed: to this end, it may be required the students completing a multiple choice questionnaires, on the specific topic covered in class. In all the cases the score of the test attributed to each student will be immediately available to him. All the scores of the tests will contribute to the final evaluation of the exam.
Depending on the number of students, it will also be scheduled practical laboratory exercises, organized in groups of two or three students. Each group has to prepare a report on the experiment and the related elaboration of data collected. The evaluation of the reports and of the lab activity will be considered as part of the final score of the exam.
The students will be also required to perform a critical analysis of some scientific papers (in English) on some topics: depending on the class size, this analysis must be made by each student, or by students organized into working groups. A specific session will be planned in which the student will expose the results of this analysis to the rest of the classmates.
The didatics described may be subject to changes depending on the evolution of the state of health emergency due to Covid-19
Verification of learning
The exam will be a written test including one or more numerical problems, which are specifically addressed to test the ability of the student in making a TD analysis of a chemical process, and to individuate its best operating conditions. Moreover, also a series of questions will be included, to evaluate the level of knowledge on the main productive chemical and electrochemical processes, as well as to the ability in exposing synthetically and precisely the topics. The specific lesson, in which students are required to expose the results of the critical analysis of a scientific paper to the rest of the classmates, along with the possible oral exam, will be used to assess the skills such as communication, and critical analysis of the scientific literature.
Evaluation criteria: the final grade will be determined by the score of: the written test (to the extent of 80%) and the oral exam (15%). The assessment of learning outcomes is complemented to the extent of further 10%, by the following issues: i) numerical and practical exercises in the laboratory; ii) multiple choice questionnaires completed by the students during the lectures; ii) the papers and classroom experiences of the analysis of scientific articles assigned to students or groups of students.
A total evaluation of at least 18/30 could be considered sufficient, unless an additional oral exam is required either by the teacher, or by the student himself. At the end of the oral exam, a final total score of at least 18/30 will be considered as definitive score.
A score higher than 27/30 will be attributed only to the student that, during the oral test, demonstrates an optimal knowledge of the main topics included in the program. A final score of 30L will be attributed when the total of the partial scores will be greater than 30/30
1)Lezioni di Chimica Industriale; I. Pasquon; Città Studi
2) Marco Noro, “Celle a combustibile” Dario Flaccovio Editore;
3)Electrochemical reactor design D.J. Pickett , A first course in Electrode processes, D. Pletcher
4) Wastewater Engineering - Treatment Disposal Reuse, Matcalf & Eddy, McGraw-Hill.
Collana dei 5 volumi di Chimica industriale - G. Natta, I. Pasquon et al., Editore: CittàStudi
Since the course is a summary of selected topics of industrial chemistry, specific material has been developed, that is made available to students at the beginning of the course.
All the slides distributed to the students during the lessons, will also be made available to non-attending students, if required.