IN/0124 - THERMAL HVAC SYSTEMS
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[70/80] CIVIL ENGINEERING||[80/35 - Ord. 2021] Progettazione sostenibile delle costruzioni edili||6||60|
|[70/84] ENERGETIC ENGINEERING||[84/00 - Ord. 2018] PERCORSO COMUNE||6||60|
|[70/85] MECHANICAL ENGINEERING||[85/00 - Ord. 2019] PERCORSO COMUNE||6||60|
Our society always need more professionals to solve problems linked to our high energy consumption, while trying to provide us total general comfort.
The most “energy-consuming” sectors in our civil buildings are the thermal and the refrigerant systems, whereas the trend to use of energy produced from the renewable sources is in rise, thus we need to find proper solution(s) following the current laws and regulations instructed by the Italian government and the EU.
While applying the European law(s), for energy-efficiency on the civil buildings involves a deep analysis of & on the building-plant system; necessary to have sufficient knowledge to carry out successfully the study of the thermodynamics characteristics, for the same a survey need to be conducted on the data and all other useful information to determine the summer and the winter energy needs.
The main objectives of this course, first of all is to teach and educate the students the fundamental steps in projecting plants (thermal, Air-conditioning plants etc.) for civil buildings/structures and secondly, to create a mentality for the “Energetics”. Thus, this could help them to find the best solution(s) while designing i.e. to optimized the use of energy from traditional source(s) but by using the new high-efficiency system(s) and encouraging the energy use from the renewable source(s) and with the minimum impact on the surrounding environment.
These objectives only can be achieved with the help of a good knowledge of our national and European laws and regulations, with the application of the 1’U.R.E (Uso Razionale dell’Energia, i.e. rational use of energy)
Expected outcomes after following this course:
• familiarity to use the technical physics fundamental theories in the sector of the thermos-technical plants
• will be provided with basic fundamental knowledge with respect to current laws and regulations to estimate the energy need/demand of a building for both in the summer and winter seasons.
• ability to conduct a preliminary energy assessment quite easily and capable to propose different compositions of the plant designing.
• the projecting capacity and skills, while designing and sizing different civil-structure thermal plants with the help of different programmes for calculation and graphic designing.
• self-researching ability in finding out the technical specifications of the main elements of the thermal plants.
• the sufficient Knowledge to prepare a presentable project for the public administration or for a private firm.
• the capability to read and understand the functional plan of a Thermal Plant.
• a mentality for the “Energetics” which will push the student to design plants with high comfort but keeping in mind to respect the natural and surrounding environment.
• ease of communicative manner with world-wide peer professionals in the matter of their competencies.
The students would like to follow the Thermal Plant (impianti termotecnici) course must have the following knowledge:
“Compulsory required” – Elements of Metrology, Thermodynamics of Closed Systems, Thermofluid-dynamics, Heat Transmission,
"Important" - Basics of Chemistry and Physics learnt during Physics 1 & Physics 2 courses.
"Useful" - Acoustics, lighting engineering, Basic Concepts of Economics
"Useful" - Primary use of CAD drawing software.
The course is designed to deal in details the Thermal Plants, the practical aspects of designing the core elements of thermal plants. The main focus will be on the practical aspects of project designing, the primary study to find out the best solution(s) and appropriate plant designing, preparation of the necessary documents for the project, including the elaborated graphic/design CAD.
The topics will be followed during this course are:
1. The course will start with the arguments relating to the Thermal Plants; Methods to prepare for the exam(s). (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
2. The units of measurement- applications, the traditional and latest generators, comparison of the costs for heat production by generators fed with different fuels. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
3. Brief revision on heat transmission, Fourier’s law, the thermal conductance and transmittance. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
4. An overview on the evolution of the Energy legislation, the law 10/’91, the Ministerial Decree of June 26, 2015. An overview on the current law, (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
5. Application of the 1st law of thermodynamics on the building’s plant system. Calculation of the heat energy necessary during winter and heat losses through the opaque and transparent walls. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
6. designing the main elements of a lifting, heating and sanitary water distribution plant. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
7. designing the system for lifting, example of the family water heater/boiler, designing and dimensioning the autoclave system, the regulation system. (Exercise - 3 hours)
8. Enthalpic balance at the mixing valve, average water temperature, the storage tank, the boiler, calculation of the water flow. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
9. Safety Instruction and requirement at the thermal plants according to DM 28th April 2005, obliged and compulsory elements noted at the Raccolta R 2009, INAIL notification(s). (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
10. Designing and dimensioning the security valve and expansion tank, fire compartment/room, gas fed thermal plants- both LPG and methane. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
11. Solar thermal collectors – flat plate and Evacuated tube, absorbers, the transparent covers, efficiency curves of the solar collectors. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
12. Optimum orientation of the Solar thermal collectors, inclined angle with respect to the horizontal plane. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
13. Moist/humid air thermodynamics, thermodynamic properties of the air, sensible and latent heats, the psychrometric diagram/chart. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
14. Calculation of the heat energy demand of a building/edifice – using diagram and the table of the Manuale Carrier, the external and internal loads. (Exercise - 3 hours)
15. The ideal inverse cycle of the Carnot, the real inverse cycle, the performance coefficient, refrigerating fluids, the p-h and the T-s planes. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
16. Heat pump, classification of the heat pumps, Direct, single, multi-split or VRV expansion system, Water to water and endothermic motor heat pump. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours)
17. Functional diagram and parameters of an Air conditioning plant in winter, Choice of fan coil unit, latent and sensible loads, Air handling unit. (Exercise - 3 hours)
18. The regulations in the plant, humidification, de-humidification, air handling unit’s regulation system, variable air flow, air recycling, sensors in the local environment. (Classroom lesson - 3 hours).
19. Energy efficiency certificate for building / edifice, use of a programme based on the UNI TS 11300, educational tour to a thermal plant. (Lab – 3 hours)
20. Designing of air duct passages/channels, calculation of the required air flow for the project under consideration, use of the diagrams. (Lab – 3 hours)
Teaching mainly will be delivered in the form of classroom lessons and classroom exercises. In the Laboratory of “Technical Physics and Energy (Energetics)” the students will be shown different parts of the Plants and then will be followed by an educational tour to Citadella Universitaria di Monserrato.
The first exercise will be based on drafting a semi-executive project, respecting current laws and regulations, meant for both building structures and the related AC systems for summer or/and winter climate(s).
During the second part of the course, an exercise will be focused on projecting a heating and water-lifting system for sanitary water for a building, connected to a traditional boiler and flat plate solar thermal collectors.
The exercises consist of the thermo-technical verification of opaque and transparent structures, the calculation of energy requirements, the dimensioning of the main elements of the plants, of the opaque and transparent structure, to calculate the energy demand/need, to design the principle elements of the plant,
Total hours dedicated for classroom lessons: 39 hrs.
Total hours dedicated of Exercises: 15 hrs.
Total dedicated hours for laboratory work: 6 hrs.
Verification of learning
All the students need sit for an oral exam, where the students will have to present their calculations, CAD designs and final report of the projects based on the exercises given to them and carried out during the academic year.
Students need to demonstrate that they have learnt and gained sufficient knowledge by following this course.
The oral examination consists of three parts:
1. The first part of the exam is to verify the completeness of the exercises
2. The second part consists of n ° 3 questions i.e. to verify the methods and the solutions of the exercises, the processes & techniques followed while designing and sizing the plant, the ability to read functional plan and layout of a plant and the capacity to apply the knowledge gained during the course.
3. The third part will be consisting of n ° 2 questions i.e. to verify the basic theoretical knowledge used by the student during the design phase (Project realization and designing).
The final exam has a weightage total of 30 marks.
40 % out of the total examination score will be evaluated on the basis of the active participation in the exercise, the correctness and compete execution of the same.
The second part of the oral exam has a weightage of 30% out of total marks.
The third and the last part of the exam has a weightage, i.e. rest 30 % of the total marks.
The final exam has a minimum weightage of 18/30, only awarded when the student has basic elementary knowledge on the subject. While, 30/30 with lode can be achievable with demonstrable excellent knowledge on the subject.
1. Prof. Notes
2. Principi di trasmissione del calore” F. Kreith - Liguori Editore.
3. “Fondamenti di Termodinamica per ingegneri” M.W. Zemansky M.M. Abbott H.C. - Ed. Zanichelli.
4. “L’energia solare nelle applicazioni termiche“ J. A. Cuffie, W. A. Beckman - Liguori Editore.
5. “Stima dei carichi termici” System Design Manual Carrier - Tecniche Nuove.
6. “Condizionamento dell’Aria e refrigerazione” Carlo Pizzetti - Tamburini Editore.
7. “Progettazione e calcolo di impianti di climatizzazione” Nicola Tabareschi.
At the beginning of the course, a dropbox link will be shared with the students, at this dedicated folder students could find and download notes and all other necessary documents related to the projects, will be uploaded time to time by the professors.