70/0087-M - APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY
Academic Year 2019/2020
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ROBERTA LICHERI (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[70/77] CHEMICAL ENGINEERING||[77/00 - Ord. 2017] PERCORSO COMUNE||12||120|
The course is designed to point out and discuss the most fundamental issues concerning Materials Science and Technology. The objective is to convey some of the essential concepts that relate material properties (thermal expansion, strength, failure) to microstructure (crystal structure, dislocations structure, grain structure, precipitate structure, composite structure). The relationships between structure, processing and properties of materials will be illustrated with examples of both idealized and technological materials. Numerical exercises illustrate the main points of the lesson course.
Acquiring knowledge and understanding:
during this course students will develop basic knowledge in the major classes of materials for industrial-innovative applications. Knowledge and understanding on properties, processing and fabrication techniques will be also acquired.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
the course is organized to have theoretical aspects always coupled with numerous practical problems, characterized by progressively increased complexity, that have to be solved in class. This fact prompt students to participate actively in the identification of the problems solution.
Making informed judgements and choices:
the practical applications foreseen in the framework of the course help students to develop their capability to evaluate critically the obtained results, to highlight the most relevant outcomes and to decide which solutions are more appropriate (i.e. selection of the most appropriate material to be used for specific application, depending upon the specific requirements).
Communicating knowledge and understanding:
during the practical written tests foreseen in the course as well as the final examination, students have the chance to demonstrate their capability to communicate the obtained results and underline the encountered problems.
Students, completing the course in “Applied Chemistry Technology”, will develop a wide-range of technical and scientific skills, being able to communicate effectively at all levels with engineers, scientists, industrialists and business leaders.
Capacities to continue learning:
the basic knowledge provided during the course makes students able to handle autonomously new, albeit simple, problems that are not examined in class.
As indicated in the CCS instructions. In particular, knowledge acquired from studying Maths, Physics and Chemistry are required.
Atomic structure and bonding.
Spatial lattices and unit cells. Crystals Systems and Bravais lattices. Metallic crystal structures. Atomic positions in cubic unit cells. Crystallographic directions and planes. Linear and planar densities. Close-Packed structures. Polymorphism and allotropy. Polycrystalline materials. Anisotropy. X-ray diffraction.
Imperfections in solids
Point defects. Impurities in solids. Linear defects. Surface defects. Grain boundary. Twin boundary. Interfacial defects. Bulk or volume defects. Microscopic examination.
Diffusion Mechanism: Steady state and non steady state diffusion. Factors that influence diffusion.
Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanism.
Plastic deformation. Slip systems. Twinning. Mechanism of strengthening in metals. Solid solution hardening. Strengthening by grain size reduction. Strain hardening. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.
Mechanical Properties of metals.
Concepts of stress and strain. Elastic deformation. Stress-strain Behavior. Plastic deformation. Tensile properties. Elastic recovery during plastic deformation. Compressive, shear and torsional deformation. Hardness and hardness tests.
Failure of metals. Ductile and Brittle fracture. Fatigue. Cracks initiation and propagation. Creep.
Solidification of metals.
Homogeneous nucleation. Solidification of pure metal. Total free Energy of the solid-liquid system changes (Surface energy and Volume energy). Heterogeneous nucleation. Growth. Grain structure. Single crystal solidification.
Definitions and base concepts: solubility limit, phases, microstructure, phase equilibria. Phase diagrams of pure substances. The Gibbs phase rules. Binary isomorphous systems. The lever rule. Nonequilibrium solidification. Binary eutectic systems. Three phases reactions in binary phase diagram: eutectic, peritectic, monotectic, eutectoid, peritectoid. Metal alloys. Fabrication of metals.
Steels and Cast Irons. Fe-Fe3C phase diagram. Development microstructure in Iron-carbon alloys. Isothermal transformation diagram. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams. Mechanical behavior of iron-carbon alloys. Tempered martensite. Heat treatment of steels.
Aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium and its alloys, titanium and its alloys, nickel and its alloys.
Silicate ceramics. Imperfections in ceramics. Mechanical properties of ceramics. Traditional and advanced ceramics. Processing and Applications. Glasses. Clays.
Polymers applications and processing. Polymerization. Polymer crystallinity. Mechanical and Thermomechanical characteristics of polymers. Stress-strain behavior. Deformation of semicrystalline polymers. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Viscoelasticity. Deformation of elastomers. Fracture of polymers.
Particle reinforced composites. Fiber reinforced composites. Polymer matrix composites. Metal matrix composites. Ceramic matrix composites. Carbon-carbon composites. Composites manufacturing.
Durability of concrete.
Cements. Classification. Cement Hydration, cement paste, porosity, mechanical strength and durability. Concrete. Concrete technology, Effect of water/cement ratio. Curing of concrete. Durability. Additives.
Corrosion of concrete: carbonization, corrosion by chlorine, permeability of concrete. Corrosion of metals. Electrochemical aspects, thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of electrode reactions, mixed potential theory, polarization. Passivity and localized corrosion. Corrosion and protection in natural environments.
Atmospheric corrosion: relative and critical humidity, contaminants, microenvironments. Organic coatings, zinc-coating. Soil Corrosion. Corrosion in sea water.
Other advanced materials. Case studies and seminar.
Lectures (90 hours) and practical (30 hours) classes, seminars.
Lessons include the use of power point slides, video projections, scientific and graphical material consultation, and the use of the blackboard for numerical demonstrations, especially for collective correction of exercises.
Verification of learning
Written exam, in-course tests (Typically at the end of each topic being dealt with).
There will be a written exam only, that cover any aspect of the course contents.
Specifically, the final exam will explore the more practical aspects of Materials Science and Technology, and consists of several practice exercises about matters covered in the lecture-part during the entire course aimed to evaluate acquired skills on design and choice of materials for specific applications and uses, as well as short answer questions to assess fundamentals knowledge and communications ability. Students will be required to suggest solutions to using a variety of materials and to critically analyze and discuss how to choose them for real engineering case. Open questions will deal with fundamentals, materials processing and manufacturing and materials properties.
Regarding the evaluation, there is a clearly defined number of points for each exercise/open question that can be earned with the correct solution/answer. The number of points achieved for a partially correct solution is calculated by considering the percentage of correct answers. Scores for each assignment are established by determining the levels of difficulty for each item. Students are always previously informed about the number of points for each exercise/open question.
A score based on 30 points is assigned to the final exam.
Specifically, since the course consists of two parts (materials science and technology , 1 and Corrosion and other advanced materials, 2), the overall written exam score is the combination of the scores for each part.
Scores range from 18 to 30.
A score above 18 for each part (1 and 2) means passing the total exam.
A score of 18 is considered satisfactory (elementary knowledge with some areas of weakness).
A score of 30 is excellent (all the objective are achieved; the student excels in problem solving; communication is clear and accurate).
A score less than 18 (very poor and dissatisfied; communication and acquired knowledge are weak) is not passing, and the student have to repeat the examination.
The total duration of the exam is 3 hours.
William D. Callister, Jr. “Scienza e ingegneria dei materiali. Una introduzione “ Edises editore.
William F. Smith, “Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali”, McGraw-Hill.
William F. Smith, “Esercizi di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali”, McGraw-Hill.
Pedeferri P.: “La Corrosione nel calcestruzzo e negli ambienti naturali”, McGraw-Hill. Milano. 1996.
Material provided by the teacher.
Using the blackboard and computer (Power point slides).