Teachings

Professor
FRANCESCO DELOGU (Tit.)
Period
First Semester 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
ITALIANO 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[70/77]  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING [77/00 - Ord. 2015]  PERCORSO COMUNE 9 90

Objectives

1) Main objective: Understanding of the chemical equilibria and of the mechanisms governing the chemical transformations in terms of atomic and molecular structure. The systematic analysis of chemical reactivity is restricted to a few specific classes of chemical compounds and transformations of general interest and technological potential.
2) Knowledge and understanding: Acquisition of fundamental notions regarding the structure of matter and the basic principles governing the physico-chemical transformation processes (phase transitions, chemical reactions, etc.).
3) Applying knowledge and understanding: Development of the necessary basic tools to qualitatively relate chemical properties to molecular structure.
4) Making judgements: Autonomous evaluation of the limits of validity of the physico-chemical models developed to rationalize the structure of matter and the chemical reactivity.
5) Communication skills: Expertise in the discussion of specific subjects related to atomic and molecular structure, as well as to the thermodynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions.
6) Learning skills: Development of the necessary conceptual framework to discuss physical and chemical processes within Engineering.

Prerequisites

Prerequisites involves fundamental knowledge acquired attending the first-year lesson courses of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry

Contents

Short introduction focused on General and Inorganic Chemistry
Chemical bonds: orbitals, molecular orbital description of bonding, hybridization.
Atomic species and Periodic Table: properties and periodicity.
Molecules: polar and nonpolar molecules, intermolecular forces, Lewis structures, resonance, acids and bases.
Kinetics and thermodynamics: general issues, equilibrium.
Carbon-carbon bonds: geometry of organic molecules.
Alkanes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Reaction of alkanes: radicals, carbocations, alkyl halides, substitution reactions of alkyl halides (SN2 and SN1 mechanisms), elimination reactions (E1 and E2 mechanisms).
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, alkyl halogenides, dehydriding of alkanes, dehydration of alcohols.
Additions to alkenes: mechanism of hydrogen halide additions, regiochemistry, resonance effects, carbocation stabilities, addition of other unsymmetrical reagents, hydroboration.
Alkynes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Chemical reactivity: carbocation rearrangements, addition of halogens to alkenes, oxymercuration, epoxidation and chemistry of oxiranes, cyclopropanation, carbenes, ozonolysis, alkene oxidations with permanganate and osmium tetroxide, addition reactions of alkynes.
Dienes: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, dienes and the allyl system, conjugation, introduction to the concept of aromaticity.
Alcohols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, dehydration, reaction with acids, oxidation, polyalcohols.
Ethers: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Aromatic compounds: benzene and alkyl-benzene, structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Electrophilic substitution: side chain reactivity, conjugation.
Aldehydes and ketones: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, nucleophilic additions.
Phenols: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, acid character, ring substitutions.
Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity, acid character, esters, lactams.
Amines: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, reactivity.
Polymers: structure, nomenclature, physical properties, synthesis.

Concepts:

Acids and bases
Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases
Acid dissociation constants
Lewis acids and bases
Chemoselectivity
Molecular structure
Aromaticity
Chemical bonding
Covalent bonding
Lewis model
Molecule shapes
Bond angles
Resonance structures
Conjugated systems
Functional groups
Stereochemistry
Organometallic chemistry

Chemical species:

Acetals
Hemiacetals
Ketals
Alcohols and alkyl halides, diols, thiols
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
Amines
Amino acids, peptides, proteins
Aromatics
Benzene
Phenols
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Aryl halides
Carbonyl compounds
Acid anhydride
Acyl halides
Acyl chlorides
Aldehydes
Amides
Lactams
Carboxylic acids
Esters
Lactones
Imides
Ketones
Enols
Enolate anions
Enamines
Ethers
Epoxides
Sulfides
Imines

Reactions:

Addition reaction
Electrophilic addition
Nucleophilic addition
Cyclization
Elimination reaction
Organic redox reaction
Polymerization
Substitution reaction
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution
Electrophilic substitution
Nucleophilic substitution
SN1 reaction
SN2 reaction

Teaching Methods

The lesson course covers 90 hours in total. Frontal lessons involve 60 hours, whereas remaining ones are devoted to classroom exercises. Classroom exercises will be performed during the whole course.

Verification of learning

Exams consist of a written examination comprising questions over general subjects and numerical exercises on stoichiometry involving the whole syllabus. All questions and exercises must be correctly dealt with for the examination to be approved. Final vote will be expressed on a total score (best result) of 30. A minimum score of 18 is requested to have examination approved. Students can access an oral examination on demand if their written examination has been approved.

Students must exhibit (i) understanding of the chemical equilibria and of the mechanisms governing chemical transformations in terms of atomic and molecular structure, (ii) analytical capabilities concerning chemical reactivity for those classes of chemical compounds and transformations of general interest and technological potential (iii) ability of exploiting fundamental notions regarding the structure of matter and the basic principles governing the physico-chemical transformations, (iv) capability of applying basic tools for solving numerical exercises.
Finally, students must be able to corectly communicate acquired notions.

Texts

1. P. Silvestroni, Fondamenti di Chimica, Veschi Editore, Roma

2. T. W. Graham Solomons, Chimica Organica, Editoriale Grasso, Bologna

Questionnaire and social

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