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Professor
STEFANO COLUMBU (Tit.)
STEFANO NAITZA
Period
Annual 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/67]  GEOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES AND SCIENCES [67/10 - Ord. 2021]  GEORISORSE E SOSTENIBILITA' AMBIENTALE 12 120

Objectives

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
The aim of the course is also to explain how the use of mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical investigations can help characterize natural resources and suggest strategies for their correct sustainable exploitation. At the end of the course the student will have acquired skills to understand how the interconnection of disciplines such as mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry have practical importance for understanding the processes of formation and control of the exploitation of georesources essential for human life and for the discovery of specific raw materials for the industry. In summary, the course aims to create in the student knowledge and skills in the use of mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical data applied to issues relating to georesources and the environment.


MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
The module covers topics related to mineral deposits, providing the student with basic elements on mineral exploration, economic evaluation of ore deposits, exploitation and treatment / enrichment of ore minerals.
The specific learning objectives of the course are aimed at developing the ability to study and analyze mineral deposits. The student will acquire: 1) Knowledge and understanding of the geology and mineralogy of mineral deposits, regional metallogenesis, mine geology, economic and market factors; 2) Ability to apply acquired knowledge to mineral exploration and mine geology; 3) Autonomy of judgment in the analysis of the interactions between geological-mineralogical elements and economic / environmental / territorial factors in the exploration, modeling and evaluation of a deposit; 4) Communication skills also aimed at relating to other professional and technical figures (eg, engineer and mining expert); 5) Ability to learn techniques and methodologies functional to the professional career of the Geologist.

Prerequisites

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
Knowledge is required in relation to the basic disciplines of General and inorganic chemistry, Physics, and to those characterizing the three-year degree course in Geological Sciences, such as: Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy, Petrography.

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Basic knowledge of Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Petrography, Geology, is required.

Contents

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
The duration of the course is 60 hours, including excursions and laboratory activities. Course contents:
The resources of the planet earth. Definition of georesource and reserve. Energy resources: fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal). Renewable resources (endogenous steam, running water, sun, wind, etc.). Metalliferous and non-metalliferous resources. Geological and technological features, with references to Sardinia on stone materials and ornamental stones. Extractive technologies and processing of ornamental rocks. Minerals and rocks for industrial use: bentonites, clay for bricks and ceramics, limestone for lime, cement marl, sand, gravel, crushed stone; perlite; sands for glass and foundry; kaolin, feldspar. Legislation on stone materials. Main methods in the determination of physical properties.
Energy raw materials. Coals. The training environments. The Sulcis lignitiferous deposit. Notes on mining and environmental aspects. Hydrocarbons: origin and classification. Mother, reservoir and cover rocks. Oil traps. Fluids and migrations in hydrocarbons. Environmental legislation and the role of the geologist. The Rio de Janeiro Conference. The Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Community and international strategies for sustainable development. Landscape and cultural heritage.
Visits to mines and quarries in Sardinia: 1) sand quarries of the Dolianova-Donori pole; 2) Orani-Ottana feldspar and talc mines, 3) ornamental rock quarries (e.g. Norbello basalt, Fordongianus and Asuni ignimbrite, Serrenti dacites), 4) historical quarries (Tuvixeddu, Bonaria, S.Elia di Cagliari , Usai quarry of Villasimius).

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
The course is 60 hours, including three field excursions and 6 hours of Laboratory.
General part (8 hours) - Economics of mineral raw materials - Ore deposits, Resources / Reserves and mineral economy. Critical Raw Materials (CRMs). Geometry of ore deposits. Metallogenesis - Classification of orel deposits.
Laboratory exercises (6 hours): - macroscopic and microscopic recognition in reflected light of textures and metallic minerals.
Mineral deposits (18 hours) - Magmatic processes - hydrothermal processes - sedimentary and supergenic processes - metamorphic processes. Fluids and precipitation of ore minerals / metals. Analytical techniques in the study of ore deposits. Porphyry-type and epithermal HS and LS deposits; deposits linked to granites, skarn, greisen, pegmatites, polymetallic vein systems; Orogenic mesothermal systems. Deposits linked to anorogenic magmatism (IOCG, etc.); sedimentary-exhalative deposits (SEDEX). (c) Deposits linked to diagenetic processes (MVT, SSC, etc). (d) Deposits linked to surface processes (e) mineral deposits in Europe, Italy and Sardinia.
Elements of Mineral Exploration and Mine Geology (10 hours) - Prospecting criteria; prospecting techniques. Elements of sampling and evaluation of ore deposits. Mining legislation and international certification codes (JORC, CIM, PERC) - Due Diligence Process - processing cycles and exploitation techniques. Processing plants - processing cycles, products and landfills.
Excursions (18 hours) - three excursions to Sardinian ore deposits.

Teaching Methods

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
Lectures (36 hours)
Laboratory (6 hours)
Field exercices (18 hours)
The course will be based on lectures in the classroom (through the use of various teaching tools: Power Point presentations, computer graphics, consultation of geological maps and laboratory exercises at the Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences.
There are also some excursions, with visits and lessons to mines and quarries in Sardinia.

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Lectures (36 hours)
Laboratory (6 hours)
Field exercices (18 hours)

NOTE: To meet specific teaching needs related to the pandemiological situation COVID-19, teaching could be delivered simultaneously both in presence and in live streaming. Shifts and / or online replacement activities may be envisaged for indoor and on-site laboratory activities.

Verification of learning

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
Methods for verifying learning
During the lessons (at 1/3 and 2/3 of the course) two oral tests will be performed relating to the acquisition of concepts and contents by the students.
The final exam will be an oral exam with discussion of the topics covered in the lectures, laboratory exercises and as part of the countryside excursions.

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Oral and Practical examination - verification of learning of the various topics covered. The oral exam will be preceded by a practical test where the student will be able to recognize simple textures and mineralized paragenesis, both macroscopically and with a polarizing reflected light microscope. The student will have to demonstrate that he has acquired the necessary basic geo-geological knowledge and will have to be able to distinguish the different types of mineral deposits and their metallogenic contexts; he will have to know the scientific and methodological criteria for setting up a mineral exploration campaign and for sampling and evaluating the mineral deposits; he must know the basic elements of the cycle of extraction and enhancement of useful minerals; he will have to know the basic elements of the economy of mineral raw materials. The determination of the final grade will take into account the knowledge demonstrated by the student in the parts of the program, in the practical test and by the use of the language of the discipline.

Texts

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
Berton, Le Berre - Guide de prospection des materiaux de Carriere. Manuals et methodes. BRGM. 

Bieniawski Z.T. - Engineering rock mass classifications. Wiley Intersciencce, 1989
Columbu S., Garau A.M., Macciotta G., Marchi M., Marini C., Carboni D., Ginesu S. & Corazza G. – Manuale sui materiali lapidei vulcanici della Sardegna centrale e dei loro impieghi nel costruito. Iskra, 2011. Bando CIVIS 2006. pp. 302
Evans A.M. - An introduction to ore geology. Blackwell Scient. Publ. London 

Fiori, Fabbri e Ravagnoli - Materiali ceramici. 3° vol. Faenza Editrice
Gregnanin A., Dispense di Petrografia Applicata. Università degli Studi di Milano, 1980.
Le Berre - Guide de prospection des materiaux de Carriere. Manuals et methodes. BRGM 

Pieri - Il Petrolio. Zanichelli. 
Berton
Primavori P. - I materiali lapidei ornamentali. Edizioni TS Pisa 

Sassano G.P., Carcano C. - Geologia economica e giacimenti minerari. Chiandetti Ed. 

Tanelli G. – Georisorse e ambiente. Aracne Editrice 

Wards - Coal geology and Tecnology. Blackwall Sc. Pubbl. 

Zuffardi P. - Giacimentologia e prospezione mineraria. Pitagora Ed. 

Personal notes and lesson slides of the teacher on paper and electronic A4 format.

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
a)Slides from the lectures; papers from journals on ore geology, metallogeny and ore mineralogy; websites
b) Reference texts:
Evans, A.M. - Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals: An Introduction. Blackwell Science;
Arndt, N., Ganino, C. – Metals and Society. Springer Verlag.
Robb, L. - Introduction To Ore-Forming Processes. Blackwell Science.
Pirajno, F. - Hydrothermal mineral deposits. Springer Verlag;
Park, C.F., Mac Diarmid, R.A. – Giacimenti Minerari. Liguori Editore
Zuffardi, P – Giacimentologia e Prospezione Mineraria. Pitagora editrice
Carcano, C., Sassano, G.P. – Geologia economica e giacimenti minerari. Chiandetti Editore

More Information

MODULE 1 - MINING GEORESOURCES
The teacher is also available to students during off-class hours for clarifications and explanations regarding the contents covered in the course.

MODULE 2 - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Students will be provided with course slides, articles from international journals and websites, geological / metallogenic maps; there will be technical seminars held by specialists in the mining sector.

Questionnaire and social

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