60/60/135 - GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Academic Year 2022/2023
Free text for the University
CLAUDIA CALTAGIRONE (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[60/60] PHYSICS||[60/00 - Ord. 2012] PERCORSO COMUNE||6||48|
Knowledge and understanding:
The General Chemistry Course aims to teach the student all they need to know about: atomic basis of chemistry, spontaneity, equilibrium and kinetic of chemical reactions.
The student should be able to predict the reactivity of an element on the basis of its position in the Periodic Table and to write a Lewis structural formula; to classify compounds on the basis of their chemical bonds; to handle a chemical reaction in terms of of its quantitative aspects; to discuss a chemical equilibrium and the factors that influence it with particular attention to acid/base and precipitation equilibria; to define an oxidizing and reducing species; to define a pile and know how to use the scale of standard potentials; to discuss electrolysis; and to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of a chemical reaction.
knowledge and ability to interpret experimental data to frame each topic in its scope, knowing then locate the appropriate way for its handling or resolution
ability to communicate the knowledge and skills acquired by a formal language and appropriate mainly in written form, capacity must also extend to the Interdisciplinary fields of Chemistry, biology and Physics.
Capacity of learning:
necessary to undertake, with a sufficient degree of autonomy, subsequent studies especially in material science.
Students are expected to attend lectures and to self-assess their learning progress in the subjects dealt with, by carrying out the related exercises. They are expected to take part in a weekly tutorial.
It is essential to have the mathematical skills acquired in high school as the algebra of fractions, logarithms and exponential (power) equations of 1st and 2nd grade and the graphical representation of simple functions on the Cartesian plane.
Atomic structure (Outline of the historical development of atomic models and atomic orbitals). Electronic configurations. Auf Bau principle. Periodic Table and Periodic. Properties.
Chemical bond and molecules. Ionic and covalent bonds, Lewis’s Theory and VSEPR. Dipole Moment, Formal Charge, Oxidation Number. Outline of the theory of the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbitals. Chemical reactions and quantitative aspects of the chemical reactions. Solid State. Metallic Bond; Ionic Bond; Hydrogen Bond; Van deer Waals’ Force. Structure-Property correlation.
Energetic balance of reactions. Internal Energy and Enthalpy. Hess’ Law and Equation. Entropy and Free Energy. Spontaneity and Equilibrium. Chemical Equilibrium. Mass Action Law. Fundamental aspects of the kinetic of the chemical reactions. Reactions in homogeneous and heterogeneous phase. Reactions in solutions: properties of solvents. Acids and bases, various definitions. Acids and weak bases, acids and strong bases, leveling effect of water. Basic anions, acidic cations. Buffer solutions. Solubility and precipitation reactions. Product of solubility.
Electrochemistry, redox reactions, oxidizing species and reducing species. Piles, Electrolysis. Applications.
Theory and Stoichiometry calculations
Dimensions and system of units. Significant digits. Scientific notation. Atom and atomic weight. Compounds, molecole and ions. Molecular formula and molecular weight. Mole and molar mass. Chemical formula empiric and molecular. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Chemical equations. Balance of chemical equations. Stoichiometric calcuations of moles and masses. Limiting reagent. Reaction yields. Solutions and concentrations. Acids and Bases. Redox reactions and balance. Ideal gases. Chemical equilibrium in gas and in water. Le Châtelier and reaction quotient. Acid-base equilibria: autoprotolisys of water; pH; salts hydrolisis; buffers; acid-base titrations (hints). Solubility equilibrium: solubility and Kps; prediction of precipitation; common-ion effect, pH effect, temperature effect. Electrochemistry: electrochemical series; galvanic cells.
Safety in the lab. Misures of weigth, volume, temperature.
-Preparation od solutionds at rxact concentration: weight and dilution
-Acid-base titrations; determination of the acidity of lemon juice
-Synthesis of calcium carbonate.
Students are expected to attend lectures and to self-assess their learning progress in the subjects dealt with, by carrying out the related exercises. They are expected to take part in a weekly tutorial. For the purpose of lectures, multimedia tools will be used (computer, projector, film and animated simulations), traditional systems (heuristic lesson, blackboard and chalk) and participatory teaching (brainstorming, problem solving, cooperative learning).
Depending on the epidemic situation, lectures will be delivered in streaming or they will be recorded and made available on-line. Tutorials will be delivered analogously.
Verification of learning
Students’ proficiency will be tested by a written test on all the subjects on the syllabus to be taken on the date indicated for the exam. The test will include the solutions of numeric exercises on the quantitative laws of the chemical reactions, multiple choice questions to understand the level of understanding of the subjects considered, and open questions to evaluate not only the knowledge of the various subjects, but also the their interconnection.
Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps and low ability to solve numerical exercise. Modest communicative abilities, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; solution of the numerical exercise with low logic and calculous mistakes; communicative abilities more than sufficient; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; solution of the numerical exercise with only low calculous mistakes; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; appropriate solution of the numerical exercise; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.
CHIMICA: principi generali con esercizi
V. Fusi, L. Giorgi, V. Lippolis, N. Zacheroni
Edizioni Edelson Gnocchi
The suggested book contains numerous exercises from exams of General Chemistry given by the authors.