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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[60/58]  CHEMISTRY [58/00 - Ord. 2017]  PERCORSO COMUNE 6 48


Learning outcomes: the student will acquire knowledge on the principles at the equilibrium conditions and the evolution of the physical and chemical processes of chemical systems.

Ability: the student will be able to apply these principles to real systems: balance between the phases, chemical reactions, heat engines.

Skills: the student will apply the aquired concepts independently, but also will operate in interdisciplinary contexts.


Knowledge of General Chemistry, Physics and basic mathematical tools (course of Mathematics I).


Ideal gases and mixtures, partial pressures. Real gas, eq.s (Van der Waals, compressibility factor). Supercritical fluids. First principle, energy, work, heat, energy conservation, reversible and irreversible transformations, internal energy, enthalpy, Cp and Cv. Joule-Thompson experiment, isoenthalpic expansions, adiabatic transformations, isotherms, isobars. Enthalpy Standard, of reaction and of combustion, endothermic and exothermic processes. Hess's Law, Kirchoff's law.
Second principle: Dispersion of energy, thermodynamic and statistical definition of entropy, entropy and disorder, reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot cycle, efficiency of a heat engine. Third principle. Standard entropy.
Free energy: maximum Work, useful work, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs and spontaneity of a process, Gibbs function dependence on T and P, chemical potential, chemical potential in a mixture, fugacity.
Physical transformations of pure substances: chemical potential. Changes with T and P, phases, stability of phases, phase equilibria, qualitative and quantitative study of the transformations. Phase diagrams of a single component (water, carbon dioxide, carbon).
Blends: Partial molar volume and free energy, Gibbs-Duhem equation, mixing properties of ideal mixtures, activity coefficients. Colligative properties.
Phase diagrams: phase Rule, systems of two components, pressure and composition-temperature. Liquid-liquid equilibria, miscibility gaps, critical solution temperature. Liquid-solid equilibria, eutectic and peritectic. Ternary diagram.
Debye Huckel theory. Electrochemical cells. Half reactions and electrodes. Types of electrodes. Equilibrium potentials. Nernst's law. Electromotive force. Thermodynamics of cells.
The dynamics: electrodes processes. Overvoltage.
Application examples: lead-acid accumulators, lithium cells, fuel cells.

Teaching Methods

The student will attend cycles of lectures and conduct numerical exercises on the various subjects (48 h -6 CFU). Multimedia tools (computers and projector) and traditional tools (Blackboard and chalk) will be used. The teaching will be delivered simultaneously both in presence and online, thus outlining a mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in university classrooms but also at a distance.

Verification of learning

Description: during the course there will be 3 written intermediate evaluation tests in order to assess the knowledge and skills acquired by the student concerning the different subjects. The tests will be repeated if the results are not sufficient. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the intermediate tests may be replaced by different verification methods (for example individual or group papers), oral interviews, remote written tests using computer aids (moodle, Teams, etc.), or completely eliminated.


P.W. Atkins, Chimica Fisica, Ed. Zanichelli

More Information

Slides of the lectures
E-mail murgias@unica.it

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