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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


• Modulo 1: Muskuloskeletal diseases (MED/33)
• Modulo 2: Clinical Neurophysiology 3 (basic and clinical electromyography)
• Modulo 3: Clinical Neurophysiology techniques 4 (electromyography)
• Modulo 4: Clinical Neurophysiology techniques 5 (electromyography)(GA)

The course has the goal to give to the students the accurate knowledges of diagnosis and treatment of both congenital and acquired articular and skeletomotor diseases. It will be analysed the ethiopathogenesis and phisiophatology of the main skeletomotor diseases, the principles of treatment from a pharmacological, rehabilitation or surgical point of view.

Module 2, entitled “Clinical Neurophysiology 3”, aims at giving students a thorough understanding of the technological and physiological basis of the signals generated by muscle tissue during voluntary contraction and following peripheral nerve stimulation. It will also deliver essential knowledge regarding interpretation of alterations of the muscle bioelectric signal in relation to the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

Module 3, entitled “Clinical Neurophysiology techniques 4”, aims to provide technical information on the instrumentation and on the modality of acquisition of the electroneurographic and electromyographic signal.




ORTHOPAEDICS 3 CFU (MED/33) This part is divided in 3 main areas: 1) Degenerative diseases of the adults and evolutionary age skeletal diseases, 2) Hand diseases and surgery, 3) Traumatology. All these main areas of orthopedics will be focused on the neurological involvement and related treatment.

Module 2: Clinical Neurophysiology 3 (basic and clinical EMG) (3 CFU, MED / 26)
The module aims to provide information on the physiological basis of electroneurography and electromyography and on the alterations of muscle bioelectrical signals in the context of the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system. The following topics will be covered:
- Elements of the anatomy of the peripheral nervous system focused on electroneurographic and electromyographic testing
- Principles of volume conduction and generation of muscle evoked responses
- Direct electroneurographic responses: compound muscle action potential, somatosensory action potential
- Repetitive stimulation of the peripheral nerve
- Long latency muscle responses: F wave, H reflex, A wave
- Brainstem reflex responses: blink reflex, masseterine silent period
- Principles of the generation of motor unit potentials
- Single fibre electromyography
- Alterations of the electromyographic signal obtained through needle recording: abnormalities of spontaneous activity, activation and recruitment of individual motor units
- Interpretation of electroneurographic and electromyographic data in relation to the most common diseases of the peripheral nervous system (mononeuropathies, multineuropathies, polyneuropathies, radiculopathies, myopathies, neuromuscular synapse disorders)

Module 3: Clinical Neurophysiology techniques 4 (EMG) (2 CFU, MED / 48)
The module aims to provide technical information on the instrumentation and on the acquisition modalities of the electroneurographic and electromyographic signal. In particular, the following topics will be addressed:
- Nomenclature and equipment in the electroneurography / electromyography laboratory
- Materials, equipment, stimulation and recording parameters
- Execution of electroneurography of the main nerves
- Recognition and correction of artefacts
- Factors involved in the variability of nerve conduction velocity

Teaching Methods

The entire course will include both frontal lectures presented thought PowerPoint presentations. Simultations of clinical cases will performed. The frontal lecture may be integrated by innovative teaching routes (active learning) through the analysis and interpretation of clinical cases. In agreement with the Manifesto degli Studi for the AA 2020-2021 (pag.12): “teaching will be contemporary held both by frontal lesson and online, delineating a joint teaching that could be held both in university classrooms or through online education activities. Each student is required to choose between frontal or distance lessons at the beginning of the semester. This will be a binding choice for the entire semester. If the number of the students exceeds the maximum classroom seating capacity, determined by the state sanitary regulations to fight the Covid-19 pandemics, the access to the didactic units will be regulated though a rounding system that will be communicated in time to the interested students.

Verification of learning

Written tests + final oral test. The final VOTE is expressed in 30/30 and it is the result of the average of every examination form.
The final exam will be based on a written or oral test.
The written exam will be composed of multiple-choice questions.
The oral exam will include open questions on different topics present on the program that could be also presented as clinical cases.
In both cases, the maximum final grade that could be achieved is 30. The exam will be considered as passed if at least a grade of 18/30 has been achieved.
The comprehension of course covered topics, as well as the ability to formulate valid diagnostic hypothesis and to verify them through an opportune and valuable diagnostic planning, will be evaluated. Finally, the expression capacity, the use of appropriate scientific language and the ability to synthetize information will be assessed.
The final grade will take into account:
Manifested quality of the knowledge, capacities and competences:
a) Knowledge pertinence, accuracy and consistency
b) Capacity pertinence, accuracy and consistency
c) Competences pertinence, accuracy and consistency
Expository modalities:
a) Expressive capacity.
b) Appropriate and correct use of specific discipline-related language.
c) Logic reasoning capabilities in contents connection.
e) Ability to create links between different topics focusing on common points, and to make a general coherent speech, taking care of the structure, organization and logic connections of the speech.
f) Ability to synthetize information.
The final grade can be:
a) Sufficient (18 to 20/30)
Scarcity of acquired notions, superficial level of knowledge with numerous gaps, simple expressive capacities but sufficient to sustain a coherent speech. The capacity to link different topics lays at an elementary level. Scarce ability to synthetize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
b) Decent (21 to 23)
Reasonable quantity of acquired notions, but scarce in-depth analysis. Few knowledge gaps. Expressive capacities adequate to sustain a coherent speech and acceptable scientific language fluency. The ability to logically link different topics lays at a moderate complexity level. Adequate ability to synthetize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
c) Good (24 to 26)
Wide knowledge, moderate in-depth analysis, with little gaps; satisfying expressive capacities and significative scientific language fluency; well recognizable ability to dialog and acceptable critical sensibility. Good ability to synthetize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
d) Very good (27 to 29)
Extensive and deeply analyzed knowledge, with only negligible gaps; notable expressive capacities and high scientific language fluency; remarkable ability to dialog and inclination to synthetize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
e) Excellent (30)
Exceptionally extensive and deeply analyzed knowledge, eventually with irrelevant gaps. Very high expressive capacities and scientific language fluency, excellent ability to dialog, exceptional inclination to create links between different topics, outstanding ability to synthetize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
The laude will be awarded to the candidates that demonstrate to be remarkably above the average, whose eventual expressional, conceptual, logical and notional limits result to be mainly irrelevant.


Manuale di Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Grassi, Pazzaglia, Zatti, EDRA Edizioni. 2021

More Information

At the end of the lessons, the teachers will provide educational material.

Dott. Giuseppe Marongiu (MED/33),
- Orthopedic Clinic, Policlinico D.Casula, SS 554, 09124 Monserrato
- Blocco I – Asse didattico, stanza 39 (primo piano), Cittadella Universitaria

Questionnaire and social

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