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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


The course aims to give basic knowledge of introductory courses that are more specific in the neurophysiopathology technician profession.

At the end of the course the student will be able to:
-Describe the chemical structures and biological properties of the major organic and inorganic compounds of specific interest to the neurophysiopathology technician
-Understand the basis of the organization of living matter
-Understand the structures and functions of cells and tissues.
-Describe the main metabolic processes at the molecular level, their integration into the body as the basis for the neurophysiopathology.
-Describe the main mechanisms that control the expression and transmission of genetic information.

The course
-Will provide basic knowledge on the normal functioning of the body in order to support the understanding of the pathological changes and thus make the neurophysiopathology technician aware of health interventions required to him/her in carrying out the profession.
-Contribute to the development of professional communication skills through the use of correct terminology and a description well organized and understandable.


Students must have a basic knowledge of chemistry and biology.
In order to address the course of Biochemistry in a more profitable way, in consideration of the fact that there is no specific teaching of Chemistry, students are recommended to acquire / review some basic topics and concepts of Chemistry.
In particular, the importance of knowing:
- The structure of the atom: Constituents of the atom; The orbital atom model. Quantum numbers. Filling the orbitals. Electronic structure of the elements.
Periodic table and periodic properties: Metals, not metals, semimetals.
- Chemical bonds: Scale of electronegativity; Molecules and intermolecular forces. Non-polar and polar molecules. Covalent bond; Ionic bond; Weak interactions; Resonance; Hybridization
- Solutions: Water; Properties of solutions; Concentration of solutions
- Chemical kinetics and chemical balance (these topics will be taken during the course)
Reaction rate; Activation energy; Introduction to catalysis;
Chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant
- Elements of Thermodynamics: I and II law. Enthalpy and Entropy concepts. Spontaneity of reactions, free energy and energetic transformations.
- Electrochemistry: Number of oxidation of atoms; Redox reactions; Chemical batteries; Standard electrochemical potential;
- Acids and bases: Salts. Property in solution. Acid neutralization and bases. Strength of acids and bases. The pH. Ionization of water. Acidity and basicity; Buffer solutions.
- Elements of Organic Chemistry: Properties, classification and main functional groups:
Hydrocarbons; alcohols; amines; Aldehydes and ketones; Carboxylic acids.


Applied Biology
The macromolecules of life: nucleic acids; DNA replication and chromatin.
Structure and organization of prokaryotes. The structure and reproduction of viruses.
Expression and regulation of the genetic message.
Cell cycle regulation and cell division.
Recombination . Mutations. Determination of sex .Mendelism and family trees.

The macromolecules of life: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids: Structure and properties.
Enzymes: generality and mechanism of action. Bioenergetics: ATP and redox potential,
Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation. The absorption and metabolism ofglucose. The absorption and metabolism of lipids. The absorption and metabolism of proteins . The urea cycle.

Teaching Methods

Methods and techniques of interactive teaching in the presence of the teacher. Proposed dialogue in the classroom by the teacher.
Combination of classroom teaching and interactive teaching with the use of tools and a variety of media in the classroom (video projections blackboard, laboratory instruments).
At the end of the course, but also of each lesson, there is a reasonable period of time for the sedimentation of the information acquired, the management of the doubts and the perplexities.
Integrative teaching methods and techniques:
- teacher-student interaction: Communication via e-mail or meetings on a multimedia platform.
- interaction between contents: Videos and / or PDFs of the lessons on the University E-learning platform (Moodle) or other sites indicated by the teacher.

Verification of learning

Midterm tests at the end of each teaching unit as follows:
- Applied Biology: oral exam
- Biochemistry: written test including multiple-choice and open-ended questions
For students who haven’t passed midterm tests, the examination will consist in:
- Biology and Biochemistry: oral examination
For the final mark, out of 30, the weighted average of test scores will be calculated (corresponding in this case to the arithmetic average).
It takes into account:
- Accuracy and consistency of knowledge
- proper use of the field specific language
- ability of expression
- ability to correlate concepts and knowledge
In particular, the final grade takes into account several factors:
Quality of the knowledge, skills, competences:
a) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of knowledge
b) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of abilities
c) appropriateness, accuracy and consistency of ability to apply knowledge and understanding
Communication skills:
a) Ability of expression;
b) Proper use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating;
d) Ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech;
f) Ability to summarize also through the use of specific symbolism of each discipline and graphic expression of ideas and concepts, for example in form of formulas, schemes, equations.
Relational qualities:
Availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during the interview.
Personal qualities:
a) critical thinking;
b) ability of self-evaluation.
Consequently, the judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Very Good (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
The praise is attributed to the candidates clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.


Applied Biology:
-Solomon et al Elementi di Biologia EdiSES
-Sadava et al. Elementi di biologia e genetica -- Zanichelli
-Donati et al - Biologia & Genetica - Zanichelli
- Stefani & Taddei, “Chimica e Biochimica” Zanichelli ed. (the most recent edition)
- Nelson & Cox, “I principi di biochimica di Lehninger”, Zanichelli, Bologna

More Information

The teacher of Applied Biology is at disposal every day via email ( or at the Department of Biomedical Sciences by appointment. The teacher also communicates notices relating to exams and teaching material through the website
The teacher of Biochemistry is at disposal every Monday from 9.00 to 10.00, or by appointment via e-mail at his work address.

Questionnaire and social

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