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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


Knowledge and understanding:
Module I (Fundamentals of Physics) provides the knowledge of Physics essential for the management and correct use of radiological techniques. Starting from the knowledge of the basic principles of Physics and Mathematics, it deals with the study of classical Mechanics, Fluidodynamics, Electromagnetism and fundamental aspects of wave phenomena. The theoretical study is accompanied by the analysis of phenomena and systems observable in daily life and the functioning of instruments in the medical field.
Module II (Physics of Conventional Radiology and Dosimetry) provides the basis for understanding the functioning of radiological equipment and the first dosimetry bases, analyzing the operation of X-ray tubes, the mechanisms of interaction of photons, the techniques of formation of the image and some methods of dose measurement.
Module III (Hospital Information Systems) provides some fundamental concepts of computer science, in particular medical science. The goal is knowledge of the theoretical aspects of the discipline, while offering a practical technical imprint on individual productivity tools, an understanding of ICT terminology, information, operative and hospital systems.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
I: use of the laws of classical Mechanics, electromagnetism, wave propagation, emission and absorption of radiation in the resolution of simple problems that will be proposed and understand how these laws intervene in the functioning of the equipment in use in the radiological field.
II: solve simple application problems related to the production and interaction of X-rays and the formation of the radiological image. The laboratory hours will allow to experiment with the application of the knowledge learned.
III: know, understand, analyze and use the basics of technology associated with a hospital information system. Information and communications as support for diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive practices in the health sector.
Judgment autonomy:
I: being able to decide which laws to apply and which approximations to adopt based on the specific problem to be addressed, guided by the habit acquired to solve concrete problems.
II: acquire the tools to independently assess the influence of the various radiological image acquisition parameters on the diagnostic quality of the image and on the dose to the patient.
III: knowing how to critically evaluate texts and material related to the topics of the course. The Moodle platform expands this mode because the student is required to make a critical judgment on the "tasks" presented by his colleagues.
Communication skills:
Acquire the ability to exhibit and communicate in appropriate language the concepts related to the learned topics and the results of measurements and observations. Being able to communicate the knowledge acquired clearly and concisely, knowing how to properly expose topics related to hospital information systems to both specialists in the sector and non-specialists. The use of the Moodle platform broadens the communication methods through the delivery and presentation of tasks (portfolio)
Learning ability:
Being able to deepen the developed topics, using different texts and the material made available by the teachers; to collect, organize, deepen and interpret in a critical and measurable way the concepts expressed during the course, integrated with other sources, also through Moodle. Knowing how to apply the acquired knowledge to contexts other than those presented during the course, and to deepen the covered topics using materials other than those proposed.


The student must know basic physics and math at high school level.
Basics of computer use and basic computer science.


I: Scalar and vector product between two vectors. Finite and infinite limits of a function; continuous functions. Increment rates, incremental ratio, definition of derivative; elementary examples of calculation and use of derivatives. Fundamental quantities and units of measurement. Force, work, power. Kinetic energy, potential energy, energy conservation laws. Translations and rotations.
Introduction to fluids and fluidodynamics: density and pressure; Pascal, Stevino, Archimede; Bernoulli and viscous fluids, poiseuille, laminar and turbulent flow.
Electric fields and potentials generated by balanced charge distributions. Electrical capacity; capacitors; series and parallel capacitors. Electrical circuits, resistors. Energy associated with the electric field. Charging and discharging of capacitors, RC circuits. Magnetic fields generated by currents; notes on natural magnetism. Effects of the magnetic field on currents and moving charges. Electromagnetic induction; self-induction; energy associated with the magnetic field. Introduction to alternating currents and transformers. General properties of waves; periodic waves and sine waves: wavelength and frequency; overlapping waves; harmonics. Interference. Longitudinal and transverse waves, introduction to polarization. Introduction to the atomic structure, electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Laboratory activities for the experimental study of simple physical phenomena.

II: X-ray production: Target-electron interaction. Bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation. Emission spectrum and factors influencing it: anodic material; filtration; anode voltage; tube current; supply. X-ray tube: sheath, collimators, cathode, anode, focal spot, angle and anodic effect. Power supply: high voltage, control panel, CAE. X-ray interaction with matter: absorption, diffusion, transmission. X-ray interaction mechanisms. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect. Beam attenuation. Linear attenuation coefficient. Emivalent thickness. Attenuation in biological materials and fabrics. The radiographic image: image formation. Optical density. Contrast. Spatial resolution. Geometric factors. Distortion and blur. Beam limiting devices: Primary and secondary radiation. Reduction of diffuse radiation. Grids and their characteristics. Special diagnostic techniques: fluoroscopy, mammography, digital imaging. Dosimetry: absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose. Unit of measure. Personal dosimeters. Laboratory activities with an X-ray apparatus for teaching.

III: Basic concepts. The active role of the patient (informed decision maker & information acquirer). Medical informatics and hospital information systems. The importance of ICT solutions in the clinical setting with hints to evidence-based medicine, guidelines and treatment protocols. Architectures, Sio & standards. Purpose of health information systems. System concept and model, information system, information system and medical informatics. The SIO (Hospital Information System). Data and process management. Formal and informal systems, information flows. Integration and interoperability. Healthcare standards: ICD9, HL7. Clinical record and ESF (Electronic Health Record). National and regional health projects (ESF, Medir, Anags, Sisar.
SO - Architectures and Internet Services: Notes on the functions of operating systems in general and in particular in the healthcare sector. Client / Server versus the Web Based architecture.
Computer architecture: The computer system.

Teaching Methods

During the lectures, the teachers, even taking advantage of the limited number of students, will request dialogue aimed at understanding the topics presented, possibly supported by multimedia tools.
Distance teaching methods and techniques:
teacher-student communication will be supported by electronic means, including interaction via email and through the teacher site or other.
Compatibly with the emergency condition due to the Covid-19 pandemic, 2/3 of lessons will take place as lectures, 1/3 between exercises and laboratory
Participation in at least 70% of the planned activities is mandatory.

Moodle and E-learning (Mod. III)
Frontal teaching and practical exercises are integrated using Open Source Moodle software for e-learning. This made it possible to use the "Systemic-interactionist" learning paradigm, that is, an environment that places the learner at the center of the process in a self-learning process that takes place through mutual interactions and sharing with the group or community. Group work and the group itself becomes an experiential laboratory that produces products but also creates communities that help each other and that often survive the teaching experience becoming a learning community. During the course the students intensively used the various tools of the Moodle platform (Forum, Chat, Tasks, Glossary, Survey.

Verification of learning

The verification of the knowledge acquired during the Fundamentals of Physics module includes:
• compatibly with the laboratory activity, a short paper on a laboratory exercise, chosen from the activities carried out during the course.
• a final written test (according to the Faculty's didactic calendar), or two intermediate tests (if allowed by the state of emergency due to the Covid-19 pandemic).
• a mandatory oral test.
If the state of emergency requires it, the exam will consist of a single oral exam conducted electronically in which the student will be asked to know how to carry out short written exercises.

The Physics of Conventional Radiology and Dosimetry module includes:
• an intermediate written test (if allowed by the state of emergency due to the Covid-19 pandemic).
• a group report on laboratory exercises (if allowed by the state of emergency due to the Covid-19 pandemic)
• an optional oral test (mandatory if the written test for the Covid-19 emergency has not been possible)
If the state of emergency requires it, the exam will consist of a single oral exam conducted electronically.

The Hospital Information Systems module provides:
The preponderant part of the evaluation is obtained through the Moodle portfolio. This allows you to focus attention not on "grading", but on "constructivist" learning: if a delivery (assignment) is insufficient, the student is required to return.
1 compulsory written test. Access to the writing is only possible if the portfolio is complete. In the paper, 15 extended-answer questions are proposed concerning the tasks performed in Moodle, the basic concepts of the course and a short exercise on a spreadsheet.
The assessment of multiple choice tests will be based on the number of correct answers provided.
The evaluation of written problems will take into account the ability to frame the problem, the setting of the equations to solve, the ability to arrive at the correct solution numerically and dimensionally.
The evaluation of the oral exam will take into account the mastery of the topic and the ability to present it comprehensively.

The final evaluation will be expressed in thirtieths and will take into account the assessments of the individual tests, but also the weight of the 3 modules in terms of CFU.
Indicatively, serious insufficiencies even in only one of the 3 modules do not allow the exam to pass.
Exam registrations are made through the electronic procedure (ESSE3).


The topics covered in the course are substantially developed in any university textbook intended for basic physics, such as those intended for students of Medicine or Biology. Normally these texts also contain useful references to those fundamental principles of Physics that should already be known by high schools, as well as applications to Medicine, which although not part of the course, it could be interesting to deepen for health technicians. In particular, the following can be usefully used:
- Fisica Biomedica, Edises, D. Scannicchio
- Fisica Generale, McGram Hill, Giambattista
- Fondamenti di Fisica, Zanichelli, D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker
- Fondamenti di Fisica, Pearson, James S. Walker

For the Physics of Conventional Radiology and Dosimetry module, copies of the transparencies used in class will be provided. We also recommend the following texts for consultation:
Radiologic science for technologists: physics, biology, and protection / Stewart C. Bushong
Radiologia: elementi di tecnologia / Roberto Passariello
L’immagine radiologica: tecnologie e tecniche di acquisizione / Robert A. Fosbinder, Charles A. Kelsey; edizione italiana a cura di Alessandro Beux, Marco A. Ciccone, Mauro Guerrini

For the Hospital Information Systems module:
J. Glenn Brookshear: Informatica - Una panoramica generale Pearson 2016
Antoni Testi - Giuseppe Festa: Sistemi Informativi per la sanità (Apogeo 2013)
Rudi Van de Velde - Hospital Information Systems — The Next Generation.

More Information

Mod. I: The teacher will provide a digital copy of the slides used in class.

Mod II: Copies of the slides used in class will be provided for the Physics of Conventional Radiology and Dosimetry module.

Mod. III: The introductory slides for the course are available at the following address:

Prerequisites to take the exam:
Attendance of the lessons

Questionnaire and social

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