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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/42]  NURSING [42/00 - Ord. 2016]  PERCORSO COMUNE 9 72


General course objectives:
The course aims to provide the basic knowledge of Immunology, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Pathology, Pathological Anatomy and Pharmacology. The student will learn the basic concepts and basic technical knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune response, the basic mechanisms for the development of diseases, the main functional and pathological alterations affecting the different organs and systems.
He/she will also learn the main actions of drugs on these pathophysiological mechanisms and will be able to evaluate their effect on the patient and any adverse reactions.
At the end of the course, students will have acquired:
Knowledge and understanding. Students will acquire basic knowledge on main basic physiopathological processes. The student will learn how different aspects of physiopathology are integrated in the functional unit of a single biological entity, i.e. the organism.
Students will acquire basic knowledge on cytopathology, histopathology and anatomo-clinical correlates of main disease processes, both at macro- and microscopic level.
The student at the end of the course will be able to understand that medications implement their effects by interacting with the living matter, the laws that govern these interactions and the mechanisms whereby drugs reach their site of action and induce both favorable adverse effects.

Applying knowledge and understanding. Knowledge of basic physiopathological processes and an understanding of their biological significance will allow the student to appropriately apply this information in the context of his/her professional activity.
Knowledge of basic cytopathology, histopathology and anatomo-clinical correlates and an understanding of their biological significance will allow the student to appropriately apply this information in the context of his/her professional activity.
The student will acquire the ability to conduct an evaluation of drug therapy and will be able to predict the possible side effects.

Making judgments. Based on the acquired knowledge on the concept of disease and basic disease processes, the student will be able to make judgements and operate responsibly during his/her professional activity, within the established limits of his/her role.
Based on the acquired knowledge on cytopathology, histopathology and anatomo-clinical correlates, the student will be able to make judgements and operate responsibly during his/her professional activity, within the established limits of his/her role
He/she will be able to monitor the setup and administration of a drug therapy, to evaluate patient compliance and possible adverse reactions and understand the strategies to reduce the negative consequences.

Communication skills. The student will be able to communicate knowledge acquired using the language most appropriate for any specific professional context. This ability will help in the interaction with the patients, with their families and with others health professionals

Learning ability. The student will develop skills for the independent study and develop the idea that his/her profession will require a continuous update of its scientific background. The student will therefore learn how to gather relevant information in order to fulfill this requirement.


Knowledges of Anatomy, biology, physic, biochemical, physiology and prerequisites as provided for in the in Degree regulation


Morbid Anatomy
Description of the main tools of the laboratory of Pathology.
How to send biopsies for histological examination.
Specimens preparation techniques:
fixation and processing,
inclusion and cutting,
routine staining.
Special techniques:
histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
Description of a pathology model

General and Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance
Pharmacokinetic: Routes of administration. Transport across biological barriers. Distribution and protein binding. Biotransformation and bioactivation. Extrarenal and renal excretion of drugs. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, apparent volume of distribution; plasma half-life; clearance.
Pharmacodynamic: Mechanisms of action of receptor. Receptor mechanisms of action: receptor sites, endogenous ligands. Concentration-response curves; agonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists. Adverse reactions and tolerance to drugs
Clinical pharmacology: quantal dose-response curves. Therapeutic index. Individual differences in response to drugs. Mechanisms of drug interaction: physical-chemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, functional. Placebo effect, homeopathy and "alternative" medicine. Elements of pharmacoeconomic. Principles of pharmacovigilance.
Special pharmacology:
Pharmacology of the autonomic nervous system
Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedative-anxiolytic.
Opioid and non-opioid analgesics
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and other antipyretic / analgesic drugs
Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Cardiovascular drugs
Drugs used in hyperlipoproteinemias, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-platelet, platelet
Drugs used in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer and gastrointestinal motility
Estrogens, progestins, androgens, insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents, antithyroid
Antibiotics and chemotherapeutic
Principles of toxicology and drug interactions

General Pathology, Immunology, Physiopatology and Clinical Pathology:
Concept of disease
Cellular adaptations
Cell death
Acute and chronic inflammatory process: biology and mediators - Phagocytosis
Complement, Coagulation and inflammation
Systemic signs of inflammation
Innate and acquired immunity
Specific immune response: B and T-lymphocytes
Hypersensitivity reactions
Active and passive immunoprophylaxis
Genetic bases of disease
Biology of neoplasia
Etiology and pathogenesis of neoplasia
Homeostasis of oxygen and nutrients supply
Physiopatology of respiratory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and hematological systems.
Elements of Pathophysiology of hemostasis: hemorrhagic syndromes, thrombosis
Elements of Pathophysiology of metabolism: diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia
Main tumor markers: sensitivity, specificity, proper use
Examination and blood count interpretation, the PT and PTT
Enzymes of necrosis in the diagnosis of organ damage
Clinical laboratory measurement of renal function
Laboratory monitoring of diabetes mellitus

Teaching Methods

Combination of classroom teaching and interactive dialogues with the lecturer

Verification of learning

Qualitative evaluation of: knowledge acquired, knowledge of the field specific language, ability of the correlation between concepts and knowledge, ability of presentation.
The exam will take place in the form of a mid-term written exam at the end of the lessons and a final oral examination in official exam sessions.

For the final mark,out of 30, it will be take in account by the faculty members the "indicative" results obtained by the student in the different partial exam.

The examination booking must be made via electronic procedure (ESSE3). Such registration is required to access the exam.


Pathology and Physiopathology
Any recent book of pathology and physiopatology available in the university library.

Morbid Anatomy
Anatomia Patologica. Le basi. - L. Ruco e A. Scarpa. Edizioni UTET.
- Nozioni di tecniche diagnostiche di Anatomia Patologica. Maria Rosaria Cardillo. Antonio Delfino Editore medicina-scienze
- Le Basi Patologiche Delle Malattie 8ed 2vol. - Robbins e Cotran. Elsevier
- Atlante di Anatomia Patologica. - Robbins e Cotran. Edra S.p.A. (pubblicata in accordo con Elsevier Inc.)
- G.M. Mariuzzi. Anatomia Patologica e Correlazioni Anatomo-Cliniche 2 vol. Piccin Nuova Libraria S.p.A.
- Tecniche in Anatomia Patologica. Marco Melis, Francesco Carpino, Ugo Di Tondo. Edizioni: EDI-ERMES
- Manuale di Tecnica Cito-Istologica. Sergio Daniel, Tiziano Zanin - Documentazione Scientifica Editrice (DSE)- Bologna

Amico-Roxas, Caputi, Del Tacca. Compendio di farmacologia generale e speciale. Utet, 2005. Howland, Mycek. Le basi della farmacologia. Zanichelli, 2007
Conforti, Cuzzolin, Leone,… Farmacologia per le professioni Sanitarie. Sorbona, 2015

More Information

Teachers addresses:

Morbid Anatomy:
Carai Antonio email: acarai@medicina.unica.it

General and Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance
Fadda Paola email: pfadda@unica.it

General Pathology, Immunology, Physiopatology and Clinical Pathology:
Laconi Ezio email: elaconi@unica.it

Faculty Office hours
by appointment: location and time will be set in advance via email

Questionnaire and social

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