1148 - PHARMACOLOGY
Academic Year 2021/2022
Free text for the University
PAOLA FADDA (Tit.)
- Teaching style
- Lingua Insegnamento
|[40/39] MEDICINE AND SURGERY||[39/00 - Ord. 2015] PERCORSO COMUNE||10||100|
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: -
- to learn the fundamental principles of drug action and the various molecular and cellular mechanisms which mediate the therapeutic effects and the aversive drug reactions;
- to understand that the efficacy of drug therapy is evaluated through the analysis of laboratory and clinical data obtained by studying the patient pathological condition;
- to understand how the pharmacokinetic processes, the genetic profile,and the pathological condition can affect the outcome of pharmacological therapy;
The student will acquire methodological and instrumental application skills for a correct approach to drug therapy
AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT:
The student will learn to critically interpret and compare scientific data and clinical studies on drugs.
The student will learn to communicate information on drug therapy to patients and will acquire skills to discuss the appropriateness of drug therapies.
Consultation of databases, publications and information sources accredited at national and international level.
Basic notions of biochemistry, physiology, general pathology
Volume of distribution,plasma half-life and clearance of a drug. Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Bioavailability. Mono-and multi-compartment models.Pharmacokinetic mechanisms of drug interaction.Routes of drug administration and methods of drug delivery. Bioequivalence.Single and repeated administration of drugs. First-order and zero-order elimination kinetics.Dosing rate. Therapeutic window. Loading dose.Genetic determinants of individual drug response. Phases of drug metabolism. Inhibition and induction of drug metabolism. Polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes. Drug elimination by the liver and the kidney. Drug-receptor interaction. Receptor agonists and antagonists. Relationship between drug concentration and drug action.Metabotropic and ionotropic receptors. Receptor signal transduction. Receptor adaptation. Population pharmacodynamics. Adrenergic transmission and drugs acting on catecholamine synthesis. Adrenergic receptors. Agonists and antagonists of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Direct and indirect sympathomimetic amines. Drugs acting on monoamine transporters. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and their agonists and antagonists. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Nicotinic receptors. Pharmacological actions of nicotine. Drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic ganglia. Serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists. Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disordes. Antipsychotic and antidepressive drugs. Mood stabilizers. Antiepileptic drugs. Hypnotics and sedatives. Drug of abuse. Drugs used to treat drug addiction. Opiods analgesics. Opioid receptor antagonists. Local anesthetics. Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic drugs. Drugs used in the pharmacotherapy of gout. Histamine receptors and their antagonists. Drugs used to treat bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Drugs used to treat gastro-duodenal ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Drugs used to treat motility disorders of the bowel. Drugs used to treat blood hypertension. Osmotic diuretics. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics.Loop diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics. Drugs used to treat myocardial ischemia. Drugs used to treat congestive heart failure. Anti-arrhythmic drugs. Anticoagulant, fibrinolytic and antiplatelet drugs. Drugs used to treat dyslipidemia.Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Metformin and glitazones. Incretins and DPP-4 inhibitors. Alpha-glucosidase and sodium-glucose co-transportes inhibitors. Corticosteroids. Estrogens, progestins. Androgens. Drugs acting on bone turnover. General principles of anti-microbial therapy. Rational selection of an antimicrobial agent. Mechanisms of action of antibiotics. Mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents. Use of antibiotics during pregnancy. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fluoroquinolones. Natural and semisynthetic penicillins.Cephalosporins.Carbapenems and monobactams. Beta-lactamase inhibitors and their association with beta-lactam antibiotics. Vancomycin and teicoplanin. Aminoglycosides. Tetracyclines and glycylcyclines.Macrolides and ketolides. Chloramphenicol. Quinupristin/dalfopristin. Linezolid and tedizolid. Daptomycin. Drugs used to treat tuberculosis. Antiviral agents.Drugs used in the chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases. Fundamental principles of toxicology. Teratogenicity and poisoning. Principles of clinical pharmacology: drug monitoring and aversive reactions. General principles of pharmacovigilance. Drug interactions. General principles of pharmacoeconomics. General principles of pharmacotherapy.
The course consists in lectures with PowerPoint presentations and exercises on the application of methods for the recognition of adverse drug reactions.
Lectures will be alternated with innovative teaching methods, which aim to actively involve students in the learning process (active learning). This will be achieved by continuously inviting students to reflect on topics with review questions on previously addressed topics and using e-learning tools, through which students can use their smartphone to answer questions and actively participate in the lesson (eg Mentimeter and Kahoot). In accordance with what is indicated in the Manifesto of Studies for the AY 2020-2021 (page 12): "Teaching will be delivered simultaneously both face to face and online, thus outlining a mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in university classrooms but at the same time also at a distance. At the beginning of the semester, the student will opt for face-to-face or remote teaching, the choice will be binding for the entire semester. If the number of students exceeds the capacity of the classrooms, determined on the basis of government provisions on health matters for the purpose of combating the Covid-19 pandemic, access to the educational facilities will be regulated through a shift system that will be communicated in due time to the interested students ".
Verification of learning
The final exam of the course is based on the evaluation of an oral exam.
At the end of the first semester, students will have the opportunity to take an in itinere test in written form, or in oral form if the anti-contagion regulations do not allow the written test. In itinere exam: the student will have to answer multiple choice and open questions on all the topics of the program of the first semester
The evaluation of the ongoing test will be expressed in judgments as described below, will be valid for one year and will contribute to the final evaluation.
Final oral exam: the student will have to answer open-ended questions on topics of the program. The final grade, deliberated collectively by the teachers of the commission, is expressed out of thirty. The test is passed if at least the mark of 18/30 is achieved.
The student will have to discuss the topics proposed by the teacher using, where necessary, also diagrams / graphical representations. Knowledge of the topics of the course, the ability to connect between different topics, the ability to express, the use of appropriate terminology, the ability to synthesize are assessed.
The final grade considers:
Quality of knowledge, skills, competences possessed and / or manifested:
appropriateness, correctness and congruence of knowledge, skills and competences
a) Expressive capacity
b) Appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline
c) Logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of contents
e) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establishing a coherent general design, that is, taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections of the expository discourse
f) Ability to synthesize
The judgment can be:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates few acquired notions, superficial level, many gaps, modest expressive skills, but sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical skills and consequentiality in connecting elementary level arguments; poor synthesis and graphic expression skills; poor interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Fair (21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates a fair acquisition of notions, but little in-depth, few gaps; expressive skills more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable command of scientific language; logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of topics of moderate complexity; more than enough capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
c) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather broad knowledge base, moderate in-depth study, with small gaps; satisfactory expressive skills and significant command of scientific language; dialogic ability and critical spirit well noticeable; good synthesis skills and more than acceptable graphic expression skills.
d) Distinguished (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive knowledge base, well studied, with marginal gaps; remarkable expressive skills and high command of scientific language; remarkable dialogic ability, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis; high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Very Good (30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive and in-depth knowledge base, any irrelevant gaps; high expressive skills and high command of scientific language; excellent dialogue skills, strong aptitude for making connections between different topics; excellent ability to synthesize and great familiarity with graphic expression.
Honors are attributed to candidates clearly above the average, and whose possible notional, expressive, conceptual or logical limits are, on the whole, completely irrelevant.
Goodman & Gilman’s “Le basi farmacologiche della terapia”, 12a edizione, McGraw-Hill.
Rossi-Cuomo-Riccardi; “Farmacologia - Principi di base e applicazioni terapeutiche” III edizione, Minerva.
Katzung; “Farmacologia Generale e Clinica”, IV edizione italiana, Piccin
Katzung-Trevor; “Farmacologia: Quesiti a scelta multipla e compendio della materia”, Piccin
prof. Paola Fadda
Site of interactive teaching: teaching rooms at Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Neuroscience and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cagliari, - SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, and the hospital San Giovanni di Dio, via Ospedale 46, Cagliari.
Office hours: from Monday to Friday upon prior appointment.
At the end of the course students will be provided with the slides used in the lectures.