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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 5 65


To familiarize Students with:
The structural organization and the normal functioning of the human body, as a starting basis for her/his understanding of main pathological alterations, as well as the discussion of clinical aspects and diagnosis;
The integrated working of the locomotor system and its different parts in the maintenance of body balance and posture, and in the operation of movement.
The ability to outline and discuss major topics concerning the locomotor system and the peripheral nervous system, as listed in the course Contents.

Knowledge and understanding:
Acquisition of critical tools and familiarity with issues related to the general organization of the locomotor system, and the peripheral nervous system, their component parts and integration, their functional anatomy, and basic clinical anatomy.

Application capabilities:
Autonomous and guided activities for the systematization of knowledge through recognition of the different structures in anatomical models and in relevant atlases, including simple clinical imagery.

Autonomy of judgment:
Teaching will aim at letting students develop an acceptable ability to critically address and discuss the various topics covered in the course.

Communication skills:
Acquisition of the ability to describe in an essential, but appropriate way the component parts of the locomotor and peripheral nervous systems, and the relationships between such parts in the body. Use of specific language (nomenclature and terminology) in an appropriate, autonomous and meaningful way. Demonstration of understanding of acquired knowledge through oral communication and graphic representations.

Ability to learn:
Essential theoretical knowledge of the structure of bones, joints and muscles, and the peripheral neurons and nerves, as acquired from advanced academic-level textbooks, and in a few cases from publications in international journals as a way to further and update the student’s knowledge.


Knowledge of Cytology, Histology, and Biochemistry, as defined by the rules set by the Degree Course.


External and surface anatomy. Anatomical position of reference, lines and planes, anatomical terminology. Regions and body cavities.
Organogenesis. Classification of bones and joints. Synovial joints: classification and movements. For some joints (as specified below) an analytical study is required: description of articular surfaces, articular capsule, reinforcing ligaments, movements, relationship with muscles.
Classification of skeletal muscles, agonist and antagonist muscles, muscle fasciae and lodges. For some muscles (as specified below) an analytical study is required: description of origin, insertion, location, action.
Skull: Bones of the brain-skull and face. Hyoid bone. Cranial, temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae. Orbital, nasal, paranasal, buccal cavities. Analytical study of the temporo-mandibular joint and masticatory muscles. Overview on mimic muscles.
Trunk: vertebral column; general and distinctive characteristics of the vertebrae. Thoracic cage; ribs and sternum. Analytical study of the intervertebral, cranio-vertebral, and costo-vertebral joints. Fasciae of the neck, thorax, back, abdominal wall. Nomenclature and relationships of spino-appendicular and spino-costal muscles. Analytical study of the muscles sternocleidomastoid, scalene, suprahyoid, infrahyoid, trapezius and latissimus dorsi. Overview on the prevertebral and deep back muscles. Intrinsic muscles of the thorax. Analytical study of the muscles pectoralis major and minor, serratus anterior, diaphragm; rectus and transversus abdominis, internal and external oblique, iliopsoas, quadratus lumborum. Inguinal canal. Perineum.
Upper limb: characteristics of scapula, clavicle, humerus, ulna and radius. Nomenclature and position of the bones of the hand. Overview on the joints of the shoulder girdle and of the hand. Analytical study of the shoulder, elbow, radioulnar, and radiocarpal joints, of the shoulder and arm muscles. Nomenclature of the forearm muscles (location in the muscle lodges and action of the groups of muscles) and of the hand muscles. Axillary cavity. Cubital fossa.
Lower limb: characteristics of the hip bones, femur, tibia and fibula, patella. Nomenclature and position of the bones of the foot. Pelvis. Overview on the joints of the pelvic girdle, talocrural and of the foot. Analytical study of the sacroiliac, hip, knee joints, of the hip and thigh muscles. Nomenclature of the leg muscles (location in the muscle lodges and action of the groups of muscles). Overview on the foot muscles. Femoral triangle and Hunter’s canal. Popliteal fossa.
Organization and origin of spinal nerves. Spinal plexuses and their main branches, anatomical and functional aspects and basics on the course.

Teaching Methods

Lectures will be mostly delivered in-person in the classroom, supplemented and “improved” by online teaching strategies, aiming to grant an innovative and inclusive access.
Didactic interaction methods and techniques in the presence of the teacher.
Classroom dialogue requested by the teacher to understand the topics covered.
Combination of frontal and interactive teaching with the use of anatomical models, IT tools and different supports (video-projections and blackboard).
Distance teaching methods and techniques:
teacher-student communication will be supported by telematic means, including email interaction and making the slides of the lessons and videos available to students.

Verification of learning

For the Course’s final assessment (examination), students must register with the online “ESSE3” procedure. Exam dates are published on the degree course website. Where necessary, exams may be scheduled over a few days.

Each Student will be interviewed by the Course’s Exams Committee. Students are expected to successfully discuss a number of topics, proposed to each Student by the Committee out of the Course’s contents, and will be allowed to briefly sketch or draw simple illustrative schemes to facilitate the discussion. Students ought to show at least basic knowledge of each topic proposed. The assessment will take into account the Students’ overall knowledge of the Course’s topics, their logical and communication skills and the use of proper terminology.
The final examination will take into account:
The student’s quality of knowledge, skills, competence as:
a) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of knowledge
b) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of skills
c) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of competences
Management of the interview:
a) Expressive capacity;
b) Appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of contents;
e) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establishing a coherent general design, that is, taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections of the expository discourse;
f) Ability to synthesize.
The exam score will be expressed in thirtieths. Students will be approved if their overall rating will be not lower than 18 (out of a: 30 points maximum rating).
The final judgement will be:
Sufficient (18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates limited, superficial theoretical knowledge, with significant gaps, limited communication abilities, none the less sufficient to allow a coherent dialogue at a basic level; limited capacity for synthesis and graphical expression, and for interaction with the faculty during the interview.
Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate knowledge with lack of depth, a few gaps; communication abilities more than sufficient to permit a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of language, logical capacity and consequentiality in arguments of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and an acceptable ability of graphical expression.
Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a broad knowledge, moderately in-depth, with minor gaps; a satisfactory mastery of communication abilities and a meaningful scientific language; perceivable dialogical ability and critical thinking, good capacity for synthesis and a more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates an extensive wealth of notions, in-depth, with marginal gaps; a remarkable ability in communicating and a good mastery of scientific language; a remarkable dialogical capacity, competence and aptitude for logical synthesis and graphical expression.
Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a truly broad, in-depth knowledge, negligible gaps, high capacity and mastery in communicating using the proper terms and language; an excellent dialogical ability and aptitude to draw correlations across different subjects, an excellent ability to synthesize and use graphical means.
The highest marks “cum laude” are attributed to truly outstanding candidates, who demonstrate excellent, consistent and confident knowledge and abilities.


Recommended textbooks
Barone R et al. - ANATOMIA UMANA. Basato sul Prometheus - EdiSES
Cunningham’s - TRATTATO DI ANATOMIA UMANA - Piccin
Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AMR - ANATOMIA UMANA A ORIENTAMENTO CLINICO - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Standring S - ANATOMIA DEL GRAY - Edra

Supplementary textbooks
Anastasi, Tacchetti - ANATOMIA UMANA. ATLANTE - Edi-Ermes
Platzer W - ANATOMIA UMANA - ATLANTE TASCABILE - Vol. 1 Apparato Locomotore - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Schünke M et al. - PROMETHEUS. TESTO-ATLANTE DI ANATOMIA - Vol. 1 Anatomia generale e apparato locomotore – EdiSES

More Information

Supplementary teaching materials:
slides/iconographic material projected during lectures;
anatomical models (available for the study at the classroom of Macroscopy);
atlases/textbooks of Anatomy (available for consultation at the Biomedical Central Library).

Students reception:
the teacher receives the students after appointment by telephone or by e-mail.
The supplementary teaching activities and student reception will be possible by remote interaction with available online resources.

Prof. Daniela Murtas
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Cytomorphology, Cittadella Universitaria, Monserrato (CA)
Tel. 0039 070 6754061-6754006
e-mail: murtas@unica.it

Questionnaire and social

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