Teachings

Select Academic Year:     2017/2018 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 2021/2022 2022/2023
Professor
CLAUDIA SARDU (Tit.)
LUIGI MINERBA
Period
Annual 
Teaching style
Convenzionale 
Lingua Insegnamento
 



Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2015]  PERCORSO COMUNE 7 70
[40/40]  UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY [40/00 - Ord. 2018]  PERCORSO COMUNE 7 70

Objectives

Essential knowledge about epidemiology and the principles of health management (including mechanisms that determine the fairness of access to healthcare, the effectiveness and quality of care). Competences and knowledge in health and disease determinants, such as lifestyle, genetic, demographic, environmental, socio-economic, psychological and cultural factors in the population as a whole (such knowledge will be related to the state of international health and the impact on globalization. Major prevention actions.

Acquire measurement and error concepts and statistical methodologies for quantitative data analysis. Knowledge of the main concepts and tools used by medical statistic, applied to observational and experimental clinical studies, clinical epidemiology and basic studies, Acquiring the concept of medical uncertainty by defining the role of probability and the concept of random variable And probability distribution for the interpretation of biological phenomena.
Applying their knowledge to the understanding and resolution of the health problems of groups and populations, also relevant to new themes, embedded in broad and interdisciplinary contexts. Recognize the complexity of the health problems of the population and social groups between biological and socio-cultural determinants. To be able to take appropriate preventative and protective actions against disease by maintaining and promoting the health of the individual, the family, and the community. Refer to the basic organization of health systems, including policies, organization, funding, cost-effective measures and efficient management principles in the proper delivery of healthcare.
Being able to properly use local, regional and national surveillance data on demography and epidemiology in health decisions.

Specific competences in: perform spatial measurements, time and frequency, represent the results obtained in table and graphical form, perform a statistical analysis of the results obtained with the above procedures, perform a probability evaluation, analyze a distribution Of probability and its fundamental parameters, comparing the mean and sample ratios using common and appropriate statistical tests, evaluating the independence of events in contingency tables
Consider the importance and limitations of scientific information-based thinking, obtained from various resources, to establish the cause, treatment and disease prevention. Seek scientific information independently. Be aware of the role of complexity, uncertainty and probability in decisions taken during medical practice. Formulate hypothesis, collect and critically evaluate data to solve problems.
Summarize and present appropriate information to the needs of the audience. Ability to exhibit and communicate quantitative results. Ability to highlight and illustrate the differences between the results of observations and different treatments
The student will be able to collect, organize and interpret critically new scientific knowledge and health / biomedical information from the various resources and databases available. He will be able to identify your training needs.

Objectives

Essential knowledge about epidemiology and the principles of health management (including mechanisms that determine the fairness of acc



ess to healthcare, the effectiveness and quality of care). Competences and knowledge in health and disease determinants, such as lifestyle, genetic, demographic, environmental, socio-economic, psychological and cultural factors in the population as a whole (such knowledge will be related to the state of international health and the impact on globalization. Major prevention actions.

Acquire measurement and error concepts and statistical methodologies for quantitative data analysis. Knowledge of the main concepts and tools used by medical statistic, applied to observational and experimental clinical studies, clinical epidemiology and basic studies, Acquiring the concept of medical uncertainty by defining the role of probability and the concept of random variable And probability distribution for the interpretation of biological phenomena.
Applying their knowledge to the understanding and resolution of the health problems of groups and populations, also relevant to new themes, embedded in broad and interdisciplinary contexts. Recognize the complexity of the health problems of the population and social groups between biological and socio-cultural determinants. To be able to take appropriate preventative and protective actions against disease by maintaining and promoting the health of the individual, the family, and the community. Refer to the basic organization of health systems, including policies, organization, funding, cost-effective measures and efficient management principles in the proper delivery of healthcare.
Being able to properly use local, regional and national surveillance data on demography and epidemiology in health decisions.

Specific competences in: perform spatial measurements, time and frequency, represent the results obtained in table and graphical form, perform a statistical analysis of the results obtained with the above procedures, perform a probability evaluation, analyze a distribution Of probability and its fundamental parameters, comparing the mean and sample ratios using common and appropriate statistical tests, evaluating the independence of events in contingency tables
Consider the importance and limitations of scientific information-based thinking, obtained from various resources, to establish the cause, treatment and disease prevention. Seek scientific information independently. Be aware of the role of complexity, uncertainty and probability in decisions taken during medical practice. Formulate hypothesis, collect and critically evaluate data to solve problems.
Summarize and present appropriate information to the needs of the audience. Ability to exhibit and communicate quantitative results. Ability to highlight and illustrate the differences between the results of observations and different treatments
The student will be able to collect, organize and interpret critically new scientific knowledge and health / biomedical information from the various resources and databases available. He will be able to identify your training needs.

Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of microbiology

Contents

MEDICAL STATISTICS ( 20 hours)
Measures, data, variables, frequencies, rate and proportions.
Graphical representations.
Probability calculation and probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson, Gauss).
Population and sample.
Central tendency and dispersion.
Standard error.
Confidence interval.
Statistical inference: hypothesis test, p value, statistical power
T test
Z test
Chi squared test
Correlation and regression

EPIDEMIOLOGY (14 hours)
Definition, scope and uses of epidemiology
Defining health and disease
Health determinants
Descriptive epidemiology
Measuring disease frequency
Direct and indirect standardization
Data Sources
Ad hoc research: survey questionnaire construction
Sampling methods
Cohort studies
Case-Control studies
Experimental studies
Survival Analysis
Interaction and confounding
Selection and information bias
EBM: the Evidence-Based Medicine Pyramid
HYGIENE (36 hours)
Establishing the cause of a disease: the concept, criteria for judging the evidence of causality, sufficient and/or necessary causes.
Levels of prevention: health promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Prevention strategies: high risk and population strategies.
Communicable diseases: definition, epidemiology and burden.
Sporadic, endemic, epidemic and pandemic patterns.
Chain of infection:
Infectious agent: pathogenicity, virulence, infective dose, reservoir and source transmission, carriers.
Transmission: vertical and horizontal transmission, direct and indirect transmission.
Transmission routes: airborne, fecal- oral route, parenteral transmission, sexual transmitted, vehicle-borne, vector borne, zoonoses.
Infectious diseases prevention and control: indirect and direct methods.
Primary prevention of infectious diseases: health education.
Notifying cases and epidemiological investigation
Isolation and contumacy.
Disinfection and sterilization.
Health care associated infection.
Hand hygiene
Surveillance.
Chemoprophylaxis.
Passive and active immunoprophylaxis.
Vaccines: definition, composition, herd immunity, objectives of vaccination strategies, safety and effectiveness.
National Vaccine Plan.
Vaccine schedule
Vaccines for healthcare workers
Communication on vaccines
Food Hygiene
Non-communicable diseases: definition, epidemiology and burden of the main preventable chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes), risk factors.
Common modifiable risk factors: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol.
Primary prevention of non-communicable disease: health education strategies.
Health promotion for the prevention of non-communicable disease: definition, differences between health promotion and health education, the Ottawa Charter.
Health communication for the prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Secondary prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Screening: definition, principles, methodologies, mass and targeted screening, opportunistic screening .
Requirements for instituting a medical screening programme.
Validity of a screening test: sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value
Neonatal, cardiovascular and cancer screening
Health Organization principles.
Italian National Health System.
Core health care levels (LEA).
Health and environment: effects of environmental pollution (air, water, soil) on health, indoor pollution, waste management.

Contents

MEDICAL STATISTICS ( 20 hours)
Measures, data, variables, frequencies, rate and proportions.
Graphical representations.
Probability calculation and probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson, Gauss).
Population and sample.
Central tendency and dispersion.
Standard error.
Confidence interval.
Statistical inference: hypothesis test, p value, statistical power
T test
Z test
Chi squared test
Correlation and regression

EPIDEMIOLOGY (14 hours)
Definition, scope and uses of epidemiology
Defining health and disease
Health determinants
Descriptive epidemiology
Measuring disease frequency
Direct and indirect standardization
Data Sources
Ad hoc research: survey questionnaire construction
Sampling methods
Cohort studies
Case-Control studies
Experimental studies
Survival Analysis
Interaction and confounding
Selection and information bias
EBM: the Evidence-Based Medicine Pyramid
HIGYENE (36 hours)
Establishing the cause of a disease: the concept, criteria for judging the evidence of causality, sufficient and/or necessary causes.
Levels of prevention: health promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Prevention strategies: high risk and population strategies.
Communicable diseases: definition, epidemiology and burden.
Sporadic, endemic, epidemic and pandemic patterns.
Chain of infection:
Infectious agent: pathogenicity, virulence, infective dose, reservoir and source transmission, carriers.
Transmission: vertical and horizontal transmission, direct and indirect transmission.
Transmission routes: airborne, fecal- oral route, parenteral transmission, sexual transmitted, vehicle-borne, vector borne, zoonoses.
Infectious diseases prevention and control: indirect and direct methods.
Primary prevention of infectious diseases: health education.
Notifying cases and epidemiological investigation
Isolation and contumacy.
Disinfection and sterilization.
Health care associated infection.
Hand hygiene
Surveillance.
Chemoprophylaxis.
Passive and active immunoprophylaxis.
Vaccines: definition, composition, herd immunity, objectives of vaccination strategies, safety and effectiveness.
National Vaccine Plan.
Vaccine schedule
Vaccines for healthcare workers
Communication on vaccines
Food Hygiene
Non-communicable diseases: definition, epidemiology and burden of the main preventable chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes), risk factors.
Common modifiable risk factors: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol.
Primary prevention of non-communicable disease: health education strategies.
Health promotion for the prevention of non-communicable disease: definition, differences between health promotion and health education, the Ottawa Charter.
Health communication for the prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Secondary prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Screening: definition, principles, methodologies, mass and targeted screening, opportunistic screening .
Requirements for instituting a medical screening programme.
Validity of a screening test: sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value
Neonatal, cardiovascular and cancer screening
Health Organization principles.
Italian National Health System.
Core health care levels (LEA).
Health and environment: effects of environmental pollution (air, water, soil) on health, indoor pollution, waste management.

Teaching Methods

Interactive lectures

Verification of learning

"In itinere" test after I semester for Statistics and Epidemiology: 16 multichoice questions (9 statistics, 7 epidemiology; one point for each correct answer).
"In itinere" test after II semester for Hygiene: 2 open ended questions (up to eight point per answer).

For students who did not make "in itinere" tests, the exam will include: 16 multichoice questions of statistic and epidemiology (one point for each correct answer) and 2 open ended questions (up to 8 points per answer).


The vote will be the arithmetic sum of the scores obtained in the multiple-choice test and open ended questions.

Verification of learning

"In itinere" test after I semester for Statistics and Epidemiology: 16 multichoice questions (9 statistics, 7 epidemiology; one point for each correct answer).
"In itinere" test after II semester for Hygiene: 4 open ended questions (up to four point per answer).

For students who did not make "in itinere" tests, the exam will include: 16 multichoice questions of statistic and epidemiology (one point for each correct answer) and 4 open ended questions (up to 4 points per answer).

The vote will be the arithmetic sum of the scores obtained in the multiple-choice test and open ended questions..

Texts


Statistica per le discipline biosanitarie
Marc M. Triola, Mario F. Triola , Ed.Pearson

Epidemiologia, biostatica e medicina preventiva
James Jeckel,David Katz,Joann Elmore. Ed. Elsevier

Igiene, Medicina Preventiva, Sanità Pubblica.
Barbuti, Fara, Gianmanco
EdiSES

Texts

Statistica per le discipline biosanitarie
Marc M. Triola, Mario F. Triola , Ed.Pearson
Epidemiologia, biostatica e medicina preventiva
James Jeckel,David Katz,Joann Elmore. Ed. Elsevier
Igiene, Medicina Preventiva, Sanità Pubblica.
Barbuti, Fara, Gianmanco
EdiSES

More Information

Slides available at the end of lectures

Availability: appointment by e-mail
Prof.ssa Claudia Sardu: csardu@unica.it
Prof. Luigi Minerba: lminerba@gmail.com minerba@medicina.unica.it

More Information

Slides available at the end of lectures

Availability: appointment by e-mail
Prof.ssa Claudia Sardu: csardu@unica.it
Prof. Luigi Minerba: lminerba@gmail.com minerba@medicina.unica.it

Questionnaire and social

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