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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2015]  PERCORSO COMUNE 11 110


The student will know the biological identity of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi), their distinctive characteristics and their interactions with humans in physiological and pathological conditions.
The student will distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. The student will know the pathogenicity mechanisms and the virulence factors, the prevention measures and the therapies of microbial diseases, and the principles of direct and indirect microbiological diagnostics. The student will know the main infectious agents for humans, the mechanisms of pathogenicity and diseases, the main protozoa and human parasitic worms, the associated diseases, the laboratory diagnostic methods, and the prevention measures. The student will have the basic information on the function of the immune system in defining and maintaining the identity and integrity of the individual. The student will know the strategies of the innate and adaptive immunity, and their synergic interplay. The student will acquire information on the acute inflammatory process and the mediators, and the molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis of the effective and regulatory responses. The student will know the etiology and pathogenesis of the main dysfunction of the immune responses, including the immunodeficiencies, the autoimmune diseases, the hypersensitivity reactions and the principles of the transplant medicine. The student will have the skill to apply his/her knowledge to the various topics of microbiology in the health and biomedical field. The student will acquire the ability to use the most appropriate methodologies and procedures for the microbiological identification and the interpretation of the results. The student will identify the different aspects of the immunological responses and their specific biological significance. The student will be able to demonstrate a critical and constructive approach, and a research-oriented attitude. The student will take in consideration the importance and limitations of information-based scientific thinking, obtained from various sources, to determine the etiology, the treatment and the prevention of diseases. The student will be able to elaborate personal judgments to solve complex and anlytical problems, based on scientific evidence. The student will be able to describe concisely and thoroughly the theoretical and practical knowledges, using an up-to-date and appropriate scientific language. The student will be able to gain, organize and critically interprete the novel scientific knowledges and the health biomedical information from the different sources and available databses. The student will be able to identify his/her own learning needs.


Basic knowledge of biology, chemistry and biochemistry and mandatory preliminarities as indicated by guidelines.


General Immunology – The immune system as a defense organ. Self and non-self antigens, General characteristics of immune response. Specific and non-specific response. Innate and adaptive immunity. Biology and mediators of the inflammatory response. Primary and secondary lymphatic organs. B and T Lymphocytes and their receptors. Antibodies and antigens. The major histocompatibility complex. Presentation of antigens. B-T cell interaction. Regulation of the immune response. Immunological tolerance. Immunology of transplants. Immunopathology: hypersensitive and autoimmune reactions.

General Bacteriology – Biological identity of the microorganisms and their tassonomic classification – Bacteria: structure and function of the bacterial cell – growth and metabolism – elements of bacterial genetics: mutations and orizontal gene transfer; plasmids and other chromosomal and extra-chromosomal genetic elements – Host-microrganism interaction: human microbiota, patogenicity and virulence, infection and disease – Mode of transmission of microbial infections – Control of microbial growth – Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Principles of microbiological diagnosis.

Sistematic Bacteriology – Most clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogens and their correlated diseases. Gram-positives: Streptococci eand Enterococci, Stafilococci, Bacilli & Clostridia, Listerie, Mycobacteria, Corinebacteria and other Actinobacteria. - Gram-negativies: Neisseria, Bordetella, Moraxella, Heamophili, Pasteurelle, Enterobatteriacee, Vibrionacee, Aeromonas & Plesiomonas, Pseudomonadacee, Xanthomonadaceae, Burkholderiacee, Campylobacter & Helicobacter, Legionelle & Coxielle, Brucelle, Franciselle, Rickettsie, Erlichia e Bartonella, Bacteroidetes & Fusobacteria, Treponema, Borrelia and Leptospira - Others: Clamidia, Micoplasma and Ureaplasma.

General Virology - Viruses: structure and classification; replication cycle and virus-host interactions; lytic cycle, persistence, latency, cell transformation; bacteriophages;
pathogenesis of viral infections; viral oncogenesis; antiviral drugs and viral interference.

Sistematic Virology – Pathogenic DNA and RNA viruses: Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae,
Parvoviridae, Hepadnaviridae; Paramyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae,
Picornaviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E viruses, Retroviridae and HIV; viroids and prions.

Micology - Biological identity of fungi and their classification; mycosis; antifungal drugs.

Parasitology - Bological features, classification and life cycle of protozoa and helminths. Pathogenesis of the main diseases caused by protozoa and helminths in humans.
Overview of laboratory diagnosis and treatment of the main human parasitosis.

Teaching Methods

Methods of teaching and interaction techniques in presence of the teacher.
Professor guided classroom discussion.
Combination of classical lecture and interactive teaching with the use of computer tools and different media.
Professor-student interaction: communication via e-mail.

Verification of learning

After the course of Microbiology and General Immunology is completed, for the first three exams sections, a multiple-choice test, possibly including one or more open questions, will be administered, and an oral integration included. In subsequent sections only an oral exam, consting of questions about the course topics over the all program covered, will be employed.
The Immunology module provides one or more in itinere evaluation with multiple-choice questions and oral exams on some topics of the program. The mid-term tests are held on dates and on topics scheduled since the beginning of the course. However, the student who does not pass the quiz can still ask for the oral exam on the entire module.
During the oral examination, it will be verified whether the student has achieved the objective of knowledge and understanding of the content and has achieved a degree of awareness about the application of acquired knowledge. Critical skills and ability in explanation will also be evaluated. To pass the exam, the student must report a score equal or higher than 18/30. The final vote will be calculated with weighted mean of the results obtained by the student in the single modules of the Course.


Abbas A.K., et al.: Immunologia cellulare e molecolare (Elsevier)
Mak and Saunders: Fondamenti di Immunologia (Zanichelli)
Antonelli G, Clementi M, et al.: Microbiologia Medica (Ambrosiana)
De Carneri I.: Parassitologia generale ed umana (Ambrosiana)
Murray P. et al: Microbiologia Medica (Elsevier)
Sherris - Microbiologia Medica (EMSI)

More Information

Professors will receive students and graduands by appointment via e-mail.

Prof. Aldo Manzin (PO): Policlinico Monserrato, Laboratorio Microbiologia; Tel. 070-675.4067; aldomanzin@medicina.unica.it

Prof. Sandro Muntoni (PA): Via Porcell 4, CA. Tel.: 070 6758634; Fax: 070 666062; smuntoni@unica.it

Dott. Corrado Serra (RTI): Policlinico Monserrato, Sezione Microbiologia; Tel. 070-675.4301; cserra@unica.it

Questionnaire and social

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