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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 7 70


It is expected that at the end of the course and relevant exam the student has acquired:
- basic knowledge of the systematic and topographical organization of the surface and microscopic structure of the organs and apparatuses of the human body from a future medical, clinical and surgical perspective; ability to describe organogenesis and the various stages of organ development in the prenatal life, useful for the understanding of normal and pathological structure.
- knowledge and understanding of the major functions and significance of these systems from a from a future medical, clinical and surgical perspective; knowledge and understanding of historical developments in the concepts of health, disease, care and health organisation;
-ability to communicate effectively and adequately terminology on the topics of the course, and to address questions and needs of deepening independently;
- ability to expand acquired knowledge with sufficient autonomy, as a basis for further medical, clinical and surgical subject studies and their diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and methods.

The student must acquire knowledge and understanding of the surface anatomy and microscopical structure of the organs that make up the different systems of the human body (cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, endocrine, integumentary) functional interactions between organs and between apparatuses, their organogenesis with a pre-clinical approach. The student will also demonstrate its mastery of the anatomical basis which will form the basis for future medical, clinical and surgical developments.
The student must also acquire knowledge and understanding of the historical evolution of the concepts of health, disease, care and health organization; the historical evolution of the relationship between religion and medical care and those between science and medicine; the historical evolution of basic and applied biomedical research.

The student must be able to describe the surface anatomy and the microscopic structure of the organs that make up the different systems of the human body (cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, endocrine, integumentary) and to use the acquired knowledge to recognize and/or to describe the outline, normal position and relations of the organs, to carry out reasoning of functional anatomy, to use appropriate nomenclature and anatomical terminology giving evidence of having acquired morpho- functional competences of the body districts of major interest for future medical, clinical and surgical practice.

AUTONOMY OF JUDGEMENT: The lessons will be set in order to allow students to acquire the ability to critically evaluate the knowledge of the topics covered.

The student must have acquired the ability to describe in an essential, organized and complete way, and with adequate lexicon, the organization of the organs and apparatuses of the human body and the immediate relations between morphology and functional activity, also in relation to vascularisation, lymphatic drainage and innervations. Use of specific language (nomenclature and terminology) in an appropriate, autonomous and meaningful way. Demonstration of the understanding of the knowledge learned through oral communication and graphic representations.
LEARNING SKILLS: Essential theoretical knowledge of the structure of the organs that make up the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, uropoietic, genital, endocrine and integumentary systems acquired from advanced academic-level textbooks and in a few cases from publications in international journals as a way to further and update the student’s knowledge.


Knowledge of cytology, histology, general biology, gross anatomy of locomotor system.


Teaching Unit: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Prof. Marina Quartu)
Embryology notes and organogenesis. Morpho-functional and microscopic characteristics of arteries, veins and capillaries. Macro- and microscopic anatomy of the heart (surface anatomy, relations of the heart in the mediastinum, structure, conductive system, vascularization and innervation) and pericardium. Surface anatomy of the arteries and veins of the general and pulmonary circulation and main branches of the aorta, coronary, anonyma, carotid, subclavian, axillary, brachial, radial, ulnar, celiac, mesenteric, renal, spermatic, iliac, femoral, popliteal, tibial and cardiac veins, sup. and inf. vena cava, anonymous, subclavian, int. jugular, axillary, azygos, iliac, femoral, superficial and deep venous circulation of the upper and lower extremities, chest and abdomen, portal vein and portosystemic anastomoses; origin and course of pulmonary arteries and veins. Functional circles (portal circles, arterial and venous rete mirabile). Lymphatic circulatory system: general aspects and topography of lymphatic drainage; macro- and microscopic functional anatomy of lymphoid and hematopoietic organs (bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes).

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Organogenesis; macro and microscopic anatomy of the upper and lower airways (nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchuses), lungs and pleures. Mediastinum.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Organogenesis; macro and microscopic anatomy of the oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, extrahepatic biliary tracts and gallbladder, pancreas. Peritoneum: Organogenesis and organization.
URINARY TRACT. Organogenesis; macroscopic anatomy and microscopic structure of kidney, calycesand renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, male and female urethra.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. Organogenesis; macro and microscopic anatomy of the gonads, genital tracts and external genital organs in the male (testis, epididymis, deferent duct, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, testes and their coverings, spermatic cord, penis) and in the female (ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina, vulva). Perineum.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. Organogenesis; macro and microscopic anatomy of thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pituitary.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: general information and microscopic structure of the integument, the cutaneous appendages (nails, hairs, sudoriferous glands, sebaceous glands) and the mammary gland.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Real and apparent origin, components and course of all cranial nerves. Ortho- and parasympathetic ganglia, localization, afferences and efferences.

Teaching Methods

Teaching will take place in the form of plenary Lectures. Class discussion will be regularly prompted by faculty, in order to facilitate comprehension of specific subject areas and to clarify doubts and perplexities on the information acquired.
At the end of the course, as well as of each single lecture, a significant amount of time will be dedicated to answering and discussing Students’ questions or requests, e.g. reviewing specific content areas. The course’s faculty will be available for meetings and / or explanations on request, as agreed via e-mail.. In accordance with the Manifesto degli Studi for the AA 2020-2021 (p.12): "Teaching will be made available in-person (in the Classroom) and/or on-line (possibly at the same time: “mixed mode”). For each semester, each student may opt (irretrievably) for either: (a) in-person, or: (b) on-line teaching. Depending on space availability in the in-person teaching sessions, Students may be assigned to a part-time shift (rota), as may be required in connection with health issues (COVID epidemics).

Verification of learning

The Course’s final assessment (examination) will be carried out through a student's interview.

The assessment will take into account quality of the knowledge, competences manifested, use of appropriate terminology, ability to expression, logical and synthetic skills, ability to connect different topics.
The Student’s rating will be assigned on the basis of each Student’s discussion and specific answers. Each Student will be approved if her/his overall rating will be not lower than 18 (out of a: 30 points maximum rating).
The final examination will take into account:
The student’s quality of knowledge, skills, competence as:
a) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of knowledge
b) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of skills
c) appropriateness, correctness and congruence of competences
Management of the interview:
a) Expressive capacity;
b) Appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline;
c) Logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of contents;
e) Ability to connect different topics by finding common points and establishing a coherent general design, that is, taking care of the structure, organization and logical connections of the expository discourse;
f) Ability to synthesize.
Consequently the final judgement will be:
Little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, lack of interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Moderate (21 to 23)
A moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the arguments of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
c) Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with small gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
d) Outstanding (27 to 29)
A very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
e) Excellent (30)
A wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, irrelevant gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.

The highest marks “cum laude” are attributed to candidates who are clearly above average, and whose notional, expressive, conceptual, logical limits, if any, as a whole are completely irrelevant.

Methods and techniques of distance learning interaction:
The teacher-student communication will be allowed and supported by telematic means, including e-mail interaction, and by making available to students the teaching materials used during the lectures.
As may be required in connection with COVID epidemics, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy practical classrooms may be carried out on-line either by the teacher and/or by tutors.


Anastasi G: Trattato di Anatomia Umana. EDI ERMES
Standring S; ANATOMIA DEL GRAY – Edra
Testut L – Jacob H; Trattato di Anatomia Topografica - Edra

Additionally recommended textbooks:
Moore KL- Dalley AF; ANATOMIA UMANA con riferimenti clinici – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Virtual Atlases:
gross anatomy: https://anatomylearning.com/
microscopic anatomy: http://histologyguide.org/slidebox/01-introduction.html

More Information

Student reception and other information:
by appointment upon request by e-mail.
For the relevant e-mail address/es, please consult the website of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery or the address book of the Unica website.

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