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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 15 150


The student will have the basic information on the function of the immune system in defining and maintaining the identity and integrity of the individual. The student will know the strategies of the innate and adaptive immunity, and their synergic interplay. The student will acquire information on the acute inflammatory process and the mediators, and the molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis of the effective and regulatory responses. The student will know the etiology and pathogenesis of the main dysfunction of the immune responses, including hypersensitivity reactions and the principles of the transplant medicine. The Integrated Course of General Pathology has the fundamental purpose of defining the concept of disease and identifying the etiological factors (etiology) and the basic mechanisms (pathogenesis) through which they act, establishing a first direct connection between the basic disciplines and the clinics. This must allow the student to acquire analysis and synthesis tools to be able to establish relationships between etiological factors and specific pathologies. The program specifically includes the discussion of genetic-based diseases, physical, chemical, and biological disease factors, cell death mechanisms, the inflammatory process and acquired immunity, the neoplastic process, alterations in metabolism and basic pathophysiological processes in the various organs and systems.

Acquisition of critical tools and familiarity with the issues inherent to the basic pathological and physiopathological processes. Know the mechanisms of the main pathological processes at the cellular, organ and systemic level
Autonomous and guided activities for the systematization of knowledge of the different pathology and physiopathology mechanisms in simulated clinical cases.
The lessons will be set up in such a way as to allow students to acquire the ability to critically evaluate the knowledge of the topics covered. Knowing how to interpret and compare new scientific data and new acquisitions relating to pathological mechanisms.
Acquisition of the ability to describe the relevant aspects of a specific pathological process in an essential, complete and appropriate way. The student will be able to argue the contents of the course using the language and vocabulary typical of the discipline, in an appropriate, autonomous and meaningful way. He will interact with the teacher by discussing the main points of the study program.
The student will learn to acquire new information and to implement their cultural background critically through the consultation and critical interpretation of recent national and international scientific literature.


The student must have acquired fundamental concepts and notions of Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Genetics, Histology, Anatomy and Physiology


General Immunology – The immune system as a defense organ. Self and non-self antigens, General characteristics of immune response. Specific and non-specific response. Innate and adaptive immunity. Biology and mediators of the inflammatory response. Primary and secondary lymphatic organs. B and T Lymphocytes and their receptors. Antibodies and antigens. The major histocompatibility complex. Presentation of antigens. B-T cell effector functions. Tolerance and Regulation of the immune response. Hypersensitivity reactions. Immunology of transplants.General pathology: Cell damage, stress, adaptation mechanisms, cell death - Necrosis and apoptosis - Acute inflammation - Chronic inflammation - Repair, regeneration and fibrosis - Cell proliferation and differentiation - Molecular basis of genetic diseases: point gene mutations, deletions and insertions - Exogenous causes of diseases: injuries from physical, chemical and biological agents. Metabolic Drug System. Environmental and occupational pathology. Aging.
- Oncology: Principles of tumor epidemiology - Definition. Terminology. Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors - Cultural characteristics of tumor cells - Metastasis process - Biochemical-morphological atypia - Chemical, physical and biological etiological agents. Mechanism of action of carcinogens and DNA repair systems - Molecular basis of tumors - Biology of tumor growth - Principles of targeted therapy - Models of carcinogenesis.
Pathophysiology: Thermoregulation: Hyperthermia and fever - Diabetes - Gout - Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism - Hepatic insufficiency and steatosis - Heart failure and arterial hypertension - Pathogenesis of the main respiratory diseases and respiratory failure - Blood cells: qualitative and quantitative changes. Non-inflammatory edema. Osteoporosis. Obesity and malnutrition. Physiopathology of altered hormone signaling.

Teaching Methods

The course consists of lectures with PowerPoint presentations
In accordance with the Manifesto of Studies for the AY 2020-2021 (page 12): "Teaching will be delivered simultaneously both face to face and online, thus outlining mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in university classrooms but at the same time also at a distance. At the beginning of the semester, the student will opt for face-to-face or remote teaching, the choice will be binding for the entire semester. If the number of students exceeds the capacity of the classrooms, based on government provisions on health matters to combat the Covid-19 pandemic, access to the educational facilities will be regulated through a shift system that will be communicated in due time to the interested students".

Verification of learning

For the odd course, 3 self-assessment tests will be carried out at the end of each cycle of lessons;
1. Cellular, molecular, genetic and general pathology
2. Oncology
3. Pathophysiology
At the end of the integrated course, the oral exam will be taken.

For the even course, the exam will be oral.
The final grade is expressed out of thirty. The test is passed if at least the mark of 18/30 is achieved.

Regarding the oral examination: the student will have to answer open-ended questions on various topics of the program. Knowledge of the topics of the course, the ability to link different topics, the ability to express, the use of appropriate terminology, the ability to synthesize are assessed.
The final assessment is made on the basis of ongoing assessment and oral exam.
It will be assessed:
• quality of the students’ knowledge, skills, competences and ability to apply knowledge and understanding (appropriateness, correctness and consistency)
• appropriate use of the specific language of the discipline, logical skills and inherent consequentiality in communicating, logic capacity and consequential of contents, ability to connect different subjects by finding the common points and establish a consistent overall design, i.e. taking care of structure, organization and logical connections of speech
• capacity of synthesis, ability to summarize also through the use of the graphic expression of notions and concepts for example in form of diagrams, graphs, formulas, schemes, equations.
• ability of self-evaluation, availability to exchange and interact with the teacher during interactive lessons and exam, critical thinking;
The judgment can be:
Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates little acquisition of theoretical knowledge, superficial level, many gaps. Modest communicative abilities, but still sufficient to support a coherent dialogue, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of elementary level; poor capacity of synthesis and rather stunted ability of graphical expression, scanty interaction with the teacher during the interview.
Moderate (21 to 23)
The applicant demonstrates a moderate acquisition of knowledge but lack of expatiation, a few gaps; communicative abilities more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable mastery of the scientific language, logical capacity and consequentiality in fitting the subjects of moderate complexity, good enough capacity of synthesis and acceptable ability of graphical expression.
Good (24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather large wealth of knowledge, moderate in-depth, with some gaps; satisfactory mastery of the communicative abilities and meaningful scientific language; dialogical ability and critical thinking well detectable, good capacity of synthesis and more than acceptable ability of graphical expression.
Outstanding (27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive wealth of notions, high in-depth, with marginal gaps; remarkable ability in communicating and high mastery of scientific language; remarkable dialogical capacity, good competence and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis, high capacity of synthesis and graphical expression.
Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a wealth of very extensive and in-depth knowledge, no gaps, high capacity and high mastery in communicating through the scientific language; excellent dialogical ability and marked aptitude to make connections among different subjects, excellent ability to synthesize and very familiar with the graphical expression.
Honors are attributed to the candidates clearly above average without notional, expressive, conceptual, and logical limits.


Abbas A.K., et al.: Immunologia cellulare e molecolare (Edra)
Murphy and Weaver: Immunobiologia di Janeway (Piccin)
Patologia generale e fisiopatologia: R. S. Cotran, V. Kumar, S. L. Robbins (Le basi patologiche delle malattie); Pontieri (Patologia Generale); Stevens & Lowe (Patologia)

More Information

Even course

Prof. Sandro Muntoni (smuntoni@unica.it - 070.6758634
Corso pari: Sezione di Patologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche. Blocco A, Cittadella Universitaria Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato

Prof. Luigi Atzori, latzori@unica.it, (Sito WEB) , Dipartimento Scienze Biomediche, Blocco A, Cittadella Universitaria Monserrato (CA) (tel.070675-8390)

Odd course
Prof. Ezio Laconi, (elaconi@unica.it) Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Via Porcell 4, III piano, Tel. 0706758348

Prof. Andrea Perra (andrea.perra@unica.it) Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Via Porcell 4, III piano, Tel. 0706758342

Prof. Fabio Marongiu (fabio.maroungiu@unica.it) Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Via Porcell 4, III piano, Tel. 0706758342

Students can contact the teachers for appointments by e-mail. For the date of the exams and registrations see the WEB page of the ESSE3 Platform.

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