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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2020]  PERCORSO COMUNE 9 90


KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: the student will have to know the physiology of the systems and functional mechanisms underlying them, specifically their morpho-functional, chemical, biochemical, biophysical, cellular, and molecular aspects.
APPLICATION SKILLS: students will acquire the necessary knowledge to face the study of the physio-pathological mechanisms and the clinical-instrumental characteristics of the various pathologies. Students will be able to interpret adaptive processes in physiological and pathological conditions and will have the useful skills in various areas of health, both to devise and support arguments, and to solve problems in wider or interdisciplinary contexts. AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT: students will be able to demonstrate a critical approach and a research-oriented creative attitude. They will be able to consider the importance and rethinking of information-based scientific thinking, obtained from different resources, to establish causes, treatments, and the prevention of diseases. They will be able to formulate personal judgments to solve analytical and complex problems and to independently search for scientific information, without waiting for it to be provided to them, using the basis of scientific evidence.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS: students will be able to describe the theoretical and practical knowledge learned during the course in an essential, exhaustive way and with an adequate modern scientific language. Thy will be able to collect, organize and critically interpret new scientific knowledge and health/biomedical information from the different resources and databases available.
LEARNING SKILLS: consultation of databases, publications and information sources accredited at national and international level.


The preparatory exams are Physics and Biochemistry


Hours of frontal lessons: 72
Hours of seminars: 18
1st semester
General principles: Homeostasis and regulation systems. Volume and osmolarity adjustment. Regulation of the composition of biological liquids. Transmembrane transport forms. Membrane potential at rest. Action potential. Local potentials. Synapses. Transduction of bioelectrical signals. Sensory receptors.
Muscular system: Neuromuscular junction. Mechanism of contraction. Types of muscle fibers and their metabolism. Physiology of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.
Cardiovascular system: Elements of cardiac function. Properties of the vascular system. Integrated regulation and control of the heart and vascular system.
2nd semester
The respiratory system: structure and function. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of the lung and thorax. Ventilation and perfusion. Transport of respiratory gases. Breathing control. Non-respiratory functions of the lung
The gastrointestinal system: functional anatomy and principles of regulation of the gastrointestinal system. Integrated response to food ingestion: cephalic, gastric phases of the small intestine and colon. The liver and its functions.
The kidney: elements of renal function. Transport of water and solutes along the nephron. Control of osmolarity and volume of body fluids. Homeostasis of potassium, calcium, and phosphate. Role of the kidney in regulating acid-base balance.
The endocrine and reproductive systems: hormonal regulation of energy metabolism. Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Hypothalamic-pituitary system. Thyroid. Parathyroid glands. Adrenal.
Male and female reproductive systems.
Nutrition Physiology: Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure.

Teaching Methods

Hours of frontal lessons: 72
Hours of seminars: 18
The course will take place with lectures that involve the use of PowerPoint presentations. In accordance with what is indicated in the Manifesto of Studies for the AY 2020-2021 (page 12): "Teaching will be delivered simultaneously both face to face and online, thus outlining a mixed teaching that can be enjoyed in the university classrooms, but at the same time even at a distance. At the beginning of the semester, the student will opt for face-to-face or remote teaching, the choice will be binding for the entire semester. If the number of students exceeds the capacity of the classrooms, determined on the basis of government provisions on health matters for the purpose of combating the Covid-19 pandemic, access to the educational facilities will be regulated through a shift system that will be communicated in due time to the interested students ".
Interactive software (Mentimeter) will be used to verify the acquired knowledge.
The seminars include Powerpoint presentations developed independently by groups of 2-4 students on topics agreed with the teacher, in order to deepen some topics of Human Physiology. Presentations will be given to the whole class in person and/or online and will be followed by a short discussion on the topics illustrated. The writing and presentation of seminars is optional for students. Instead, the whole class must attend all scheduled seminars.

Verification of learning

EVEN channel. Written test on the topics of the first semester. The test consists of a part of 5 multi-answer quizzes (1 point each) + 1 complex quiz (2 points) + 2 open questions (4 points each) for a total of 15 points.
Written test on the topics of the second semester (same mechanism as that of the first). Final oral interview on the topics for the whole year, with particular focus on those of the second semester and those of the first semester in which, based on the results of the written test, the candidate showed insufficient levels of preparation.
The final grade is the result of the sum of the 2 written tests (15 + 15) weighted with the outcome of the final interview. The vote is out of thirty.

ODD channel. Written test on the topics of the first semester. The test consists of 30 quizzes with three answers each of which only one is correct. Each correct answer is worth one point for a total of 30 points. Final exam: interview on the topics of the whole year, with particular focus on those of the second semester and those of the first semester in which, based on the results of the written test, the candidate showed insufficient levels of preparation. The final grade is the result of the weighted average of the written test of the first semester and the interview of the second semester. The grade is out of thirty based on the following evaluation scale:
a) Sufficient (from 18 to 20/30)
The candidate demonstrates few acquired notions, superficial level, many gaps, modest expressive skills, but sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; logical skills and consequentiality in connecting elementary level arguments; poor ability of synthesis and graphic expression; poor interaction with the teacher during the interview.
b) Fair (21 to 23)
The candidate demonstrates a fair acquisition of knowledge, but little in-depth, few gaps; expressive skills more than sufficient to support a coherent dialogue; acceptable command of scientific language; logical skills and consequentiality in the connection of topics of moderate complexity; more than enough capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
c) Good (from 24 to 26)
The candidate demonstrates a rather broad knowledge base, moderate in-depth study, with small gaps; satisfactory expressive skills and significant command of scientific language; dialogic ability and critical spirit well noticeable; good synthesis skills and more than acceptable graphic expression skills.
d) Excellent (from 27 to 29)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive, well-studied knowledge base, with marginal gaps; remarkable expressive skills and high command of scientific language; remarkable dialogical ability, good competence, and relevant aptitude for logical synthesis; high capacity for synthesis and graphic expression.
e) Excellent (30)
The candidate demonstrates a very extensive and in-depth knowledge base, possibly irrelevant gaps; high expressive skills and high command of scientific language; excellent dialogue skills, strong aptitude for making connections between different topics; excellent ability to synthesize and great familiarity with graphic expression.
Honors are attributed to candidates clearly above the average, and whose possible notional, expressive, conceptual, or logical limits are altogether completely irrelevant.


R. M. Berne, M. N. Levy: Fisiologia (Casa editrice Ambrosiana-Milano)
V. Taglietti, C. Casella: Principi di fisiologia e biofiisica della cellula, Vol I-IV (La Goliardica Pavese)
D. U. Silverthorn: Fisiologia (Casa editrice Ambrosiana-Milano)
W.F. Boron, E.L. Boulpaep: Fisiologia Medica (Edra)
G. Rindi, E. Manni: Fisiologia Umana (UTET)
Vander: Fisiologia (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana)
W.F. Boron, E. L. Boulpaep: Fisiologia Medica (EDRA)
William F. Ganong, Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. Barman, S. Boitano, Heddwen L. Brooks: Fisiologia medica di Ganong (Piccin)

More Information

The slides of all teaching activities are made available online to students

Questionnaire and social

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