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First Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

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Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)
[40/39]  MEDICINE AND SURGERY [39/00 - Ord. 2015]  PERCORSO COMUNE 5 65


BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND COMPREHENSION CAPACITY: The student is required to know the epidemiology, risk factors, and principal clinical manifestations of NErVOUS SISTEM's diseases. Additionally, the student is required to know the major diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for such diseases.
To that, knowing and understanding the basic notions and interventions of neurology, neurosurgery needed for project drafting, and the interventions evaluations (identification, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic approach). In particular, know and understand the role of the physician in the management team of the person with neurological and neurosurgical diseases. Identifying the specific assessment instruments of the physician (about structures and functions, activities and participation), validated and reliable, and clinical observation. Formulating diagnosis; identify the prognosis and define the therapy also about the gradient of modifiability of the problems.

APPLICATION CAPACITIES: the student must be able to apply both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of neurological disorders, participate with his own specific expertise in the design of a program of care of the person with neurological disease in collaboration with other health professionals. Formulate, through reasoning, clinical goals to be achieved. Define the contingency plan about objectives. Identify aids and orthotics useful to the achievement of personal autonomy. Identify the specific characteristics of the physician in the neurological setting team.

AUTONOMY JUDGEMENT: The student will learn to acquire and integrate anamnestic and instrumental data to formulate a diagnostic judgment in the context of neurology and neurosurgery. Critically examine the aims and methods of assessing the results obtained

COMMUNICATION CAPACITY: The student will learn to present relevant data regarding a specific clinical case and to properly expose the development of diagnostic pathways and the results of therapeutic interventions. Analyze the main channels and communication techniques to define the most appropriate methodology in the context analyzed. Planning, implementing, and evaluating the results of the communication strategy used. In particular, acquire the ability to communicate information, problems, and solutions with the team members, patients, and families

COMPREHENSION CAPACITY: The student will learn to acquire new information and to enforce his cultural background critically through the consultation and interpretation of recent scientific literature


Prior knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the central and peripheral nervous system is suggested to reach a fruitful course attendance.


Organization of the motor system, sensitive system, cranial nerves, pain and headache, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, motoneuron diseases, neuropathy, neurodegenerative diseases. Cerebrovascular disease. Inflammatory disease of SNC. Demielinisations disease. Epileptic syndromes.
Morphofunctional organization of the cerebral cortex. Primary sensory and association areas. Sensory-motor integration. Basic principles of electroencephalography (EEG). Analysis of the main rhythms of the electroencephalogram.
Behavioral states. The wake-sleep cycle. Physiological regulations during sleep. Role of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in the organization of the behavioral circadian rhythms.
Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology:
Anatomy of the central and peripheral nervous system. Pathophysiology of the liquor system, intracranial hypertension, syndrome Hydrocephalus Monitoring of endocranial pressure. SNC Malformations. Management of head and spine injuries. Endocranial and Spina neoformation: classification, histogenesis, and topographic classification. The management of spinal tumors. The management of cranial tumors. The management of vascular malformation. The degenerative disease of the Spine. Cerebrovascular arterial and venous system. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (causes and management). Midollar compression.
CT and MRI indications. General features of SNC surgical disease at CT and MRI.

Teaching Methods

The entire course will include both frontal lectures presented through PowerPoint presentations and clinical practice through the attendance of clinical ward, day hospital, and clinic. The frontal lecture may be integrated by innovative teaching routes (active learning) through the analysis and interpretation of clinical cases. In agreement with the Manifesto degli Studi for the AA 2020-2021 (pag.12): "teaching will be contemporary held both by frontal lesson and online, delineating joint teaching that could be held both in university classrooms or through online education activities. Each student is required to choose between frontal or distance lessons at the beginning of the semester. This will be a binding choice for the entire semester. If the number of the students exceeds the maximum classroom seating capacity, determined by the state sanitary regulations to fight the Covid-19 pandemics, the access to the didactic units will be regulated through a rounding system that will be communicated in time to the interested students.
Theory classes and clinical cases discussions (30 hours of neurology; 8 hours neurosurgery)
Practical classes (20 hours); ward frequency (neurologic exam, lumbar puncture, muscle biopsy, interpretation of neurophysiological exams, and neuroradiologic exams).
Video (showed during lessons)

Verification of learning

The final examination (oral) evaluates the degree of understanding of the main learning targets of the course:
-knowledge of the clinical and diagnostic path of the main neurological disorders
-knowledge of the main treatment of neurological disorders in the light of the specific physiopathology
- knowledge of the principles of the neurophysiological lab.
The comprehension of course covered topics, as well as the ability to formulate a valid diagnostic hypothesis and to verify them through an opportune and valuable diagnostic planning, will be evaluated. The knowledge of non-specialist therapies for the examined pathologies will also be evaluated. Finally, the expression capacity, the use of appropriate scientific language, and the ability to synthesize information will be assessed.
The final grade will take into account:
Manifested quality of the knowledge, capacities, and competencies:
a) Knowledge pertinence, accuracy, and consistency
b) Capacity pertinence, accuracy, and consistency
c) Competences pertinence, accuracy, and consistency
Expository modalities:
a) Expressive capacity.
b) Appropriate and correct use of specific discipline-related language.
c) Logic reasoning capabilities in content connection.
e) Ability to create links between different topics focusing on common points, and to make a general coherent speech, taking care of the structure, organization, and logic connections of the speech.
f) Ability to synthesize information.

The final grade can be:
a) Sufficient (18 to 20/30)
Scarcity of acquired notions, superficial level of knowledge with numerous gaps, simple expressive capacities but sufficient to sustain a coherent speech. The capacity to link different topics lays at an elementary level. Scarce ability to synthesize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
b) Decent (21 to 23)
Reasonable quantity of acquired notions, but scarce in-depth analysis. Few knowledge gaps. Expressive capacities adequate to sustain a coherent speech and acceptable scientific language fluency. The ability to logically link different topics lays at a moderate complexity level. Adequate ability to synthesize and interact with the professor during the interview.
c) Good (24 to 26)
Wide knowledge, moderate in-depth analysis, with little gaps; satisfying expressive capacities and significative scientific language fluency; well recognizable ability to dialog and acceptable critical sensibility. Good ability to synthesize and interact with the professor during the interview.
d) Very good (27 to 29)
Extensive and deeply analyzed knowledge, with only negligible gaps; notable expressive capacities and high scientific language fluency; remarkable ability to dialog and inclination to synthesize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
e) Excellent (30)
Exceptionally extensive and deeply analyzed knowledge, eventually with irrelevant gaps. Very high expressive capacities and scientific language fluency, excellent ability to dialog, exceptional inclination to create links between different topics, outstanding ability to synthesize and to interact with the professor during the interview.
The "laude" will be awarded to the candidates that demonstrate to be remarkably above the average, whose eventual expressional, conceptual, logical, and notional limits result to be mainly irrelevant.


ADAMS-VICTOR-ROPPER – Edizione Italiana- Frattola-Nappi Tonali “Principi di Neurologia” VI Edizione
MARTIN A.-SAMUELS-STEVEN FESKE Churchill Livingtosne “Neurologia Clinica-Office Practice of
BERGAMASCO-MUTANI " La Neurologia di Bergamini" casa Editrice Cortina di Torino
PAGNI CARLO A. "Lezioni di Neurochirurgia",casa Editrice Cortina di Torino
H. RICHARD WINN "Youmans Neurological Surgery" casa Editrice Elsevier

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