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Second Semester 
Teaching style
Lingua Insegnamento

Informazioni aggiuntive

Course Curriculum CFU Length(h)


Students will learn the main concepts of toxicology to evaluate the toxic actions, mechanism(s) and significance of toxicity tests with special reference to main body organs.


To attend classes students must have acquired notions of Organic Chemistry 1 and General Pharmacology; to be admitted to oral examination must have passed the examinations for the above courses.


Principles of Toxicology. Routes, sites and frequency of exposure to toxicants. Interactions between toxicants.
Dose-response curves. Toxicity indexes.
Mechanisms of toxicity. Interactions toxicant-receptors, toxicant-excitable membranes and toxicant-mechanisms responsible of cellular homeostasis.
Toxicity on experimental animals. Acute lethality. Sub-acute, acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity. Reproductive and developmental toxicology. Mutagenesis tests.
Risk evaluation and predictive toxicology. Risk perception and evaluation. Epidemiology.
Mechanisms of adsorption, distribution, metabolism and clearance of toxicants.
Phase I and Phase II metabolic pathways and mechanisms of toxicants’ biotransformation.
Peripheral and central nervous system toxicity. Blood brain barrier, brain energy balance and axonal transport mechanisms. Drugs and neurotoxic substances.
Heart and vessels toxicity. Mechanisms of cardiac and circulatory toxicity. Drugs and substances responsible of heart and vessels toxicity.
Liver toxicity. Classification and mechanisms of liver toxicity (lipid accumulation, protein synthesis, bile acids. Drugs and substances responsible of liver toxicity.
Renal Toxicity. Classification and mechanisms of renal toxicity. Drugs and substances responsible of renal oxicity.
Lung Toxicity. Classification and mechanisms of lung toxicity. Drugs and substances responsible of lung toxicity.

Teaching Methods

Classes of this course take place between 8 to 9 weeks and have a weekly load of 6 hours. During these 8 to 9 weeks do also take place “in itinere” self-evaluation tests.
Due to the epidemiological situation and to its unpredictability classes may also take place through web streaming and the recordings of the lessons may be made available online.

Verification of learning

Oral Examination. In order to be admitted to this examination students must have previously passed the examination of Organic Chemistry 1 and General Pharmacology.


Klaassen Curtis D., Casarett & Doull’s – TOSSICOLOGIA – VII Ed. EMSI

Klaassen Curtis D., Watkins III John B. – Casarett & Doull ELEMENTI di TOSSICOLOGIA – Ed. Italiana a cura di Hrelia P. e Cantelli Forti G., Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

More Information

Slides used during classes are made available to students as supporting material

Questionnaire and social

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